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外研社杯英语演讲比赛即兴演讲遵循的原则  

2012-10-14 21:33:53|  分类: 即兴演讲题目 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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外研社杯英语演讲比赛即兴演讲遵循的原则【11月17日更新】 - 斯碧驰 - 英语演讲与辩论博客

  中山大学 陈彦君,获得2011年全国英语演讲比赛冠军

Host: Last February, Chun Shu, a Chinese writer in her early twenties, appeared on the cover of Time magazine. She was referred to by the U.S. Editor as "... one of a group of post-eighties writers in China." Which also includes Guo Jingming, Zhang Yueran and Han Ham All these writers recount their personal feelings and express their individuality in their works, and they have a large group of readers and supporters. However, there is some concern that the cynical attitude towards life that they express might have a negative effect on young readers. Do you also fear it will have such negative effects? Thanks.

 Thank you for your question.Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen.

My topic of today's speech is "Make our Voice Heard." Today I would like to argue in two park. First, I would like to argue why people are afraid that literatures will set a negative effect on our lives. And second part I will share some of my thoughts with you.

开宗明义。演讲人首先明确的告知听众演讲的主题,使用brief introduction sentence to get attention。在临场的匆忙之中仍然想出来一个很好的题目Make Our Voice Heard,并且将自己的论述分为两部分,有条不紊,令人感叹。

Why those people are afraid of these kind of literature? I'm afraid that they are afraid of that teenagers are liked to imitate others. And teenager is just a crucial point for us to shape our personality, our view of life, and our value of the world. They're afraid of that we follow the bad example and lead a bad life in the future. And that's why my parents, my family, and even the government would like to propose where thought those kind of literature as cynical ones.

本段讨论人们对此类文学作品表示忧虑的原因:担心青少年模仿。思路很清晰。也正是在正文中cover the main points。但大概由于临场的因素,出现了一些浯法方面的错误,如:I'm afraid of that…,they are afraid of that…,虽然不影响理解,仍然是个遗憾。

演讲人将《麦田守望者》与郭敬明的作品相比较,为下文打下铺垫。用文学名著作为论证的材料,很有说服力。

     But I would like to share some of my thoughts with you. Before I read the book of Mr. Guo Jingming's novel, I read another fiction called the Catcher the Rye. In that book, I also read sex, violence, murder, and rebellion. But that book was regarded as one of the masterpiece in American history and awarded the Pulitzer Prize. I could not see any difference between Mr. Guo Jingming's novel and The Cateber in the Rye, because they expressed the attitude as our teenagers and adolescents we feel about the world.

     Now let me give you my three reasons, why we can read this kind of a book and f am not afraid of tile fears of the side effect. First, those literatures are not all bad. They have some positive points. They advocate friendship, love, loyalty, and so on. One of my roommates even cried after reading those books, He said that it is the first.., it was the first time in his life that he felt that a friendship was that precious, because the stories depicted in his novel, reflect him of the old times he spent in his high school. And he bought four books of Mr. Guo Jingming's Never Flowers in Never Dream (Meng Li Hua Luo Zhi Duo Shao) and sent them to his friends. And his friends wrote a long letter to him. I think this is what we lack today, the communication between friends. But the literature seems to bridge the gap.

本段从三个方面指出此类作品不会产生负面影响的原因。首先指出第一个作品本身亦有其可取之处。并以其宦友的亲身经历为例作出了令人信服的论证。这样就使演讲personalized,so that audience can relate more easily to personal topics—they probably have similar experiences.

     And the second reason is that we are not living in a world where everything is depicted as good. We are living in a world of good and evil, evil and holy. So, to that extent, if I am confined in a world where everything is depicted as good, I will feel quite perplexed when I am facing the real world. Does the real world really resemble what I read in the novel? We need something positive, also we need something cynical.

      And the third reason is that our generation, I believe, have the sense of self-discipline. We can make our own decision. For our parents, for our families and for the government, they should resume, assume the responsibility to remind us that what is good, what is bad, what is cynical Make our voice be heard. This is my answer and I am not afraid of tile side effects of those literature.

   Thank you very much.

   

  本段谈论演讲人的第二个观点:世界亦非完美无暇,文学就应该反应真实的世界。

  最后一点原因:当代年轻人可以自律。至此就分别从文学作品、社会、个人三个方面透彻地阐释了演讲人的观点。也正是通过从不同角度的分析,使听众接受演讲人的观点。这一段中也出现了较为明显的问题。

 Host: And, the topic for your speech will be... In spite of the fact that there is cutthroat competition within the film industry in China, there continues to be a steep increase in the number of applicants for places at Chinese art institutes. According to a Beiiing-based newspaper, more than ten thousand applicants waited in line on a single day to register to apply for the Beijing Film Academy. How do you perceive this struggle for stardom?

 

Thank you for the difficult question.

     Well, to be honest with you, I'm not really familiar with the struggle for stardom thing in China. But in the city where I come from, there is this also as cutthroat as the one in Beijing here competition going on, and perhaps I can share with you the experience we have there.

     Let me tell you something. In the city where I come from, there is this famous singing competition going on every week. And what they do is that pick the best one, and the best one goes to the next week and it goes on and on until one day that person is eliminated.

      开场白中difficult的使用充分显示了演讲人的机智。因为这与普通的接题方式Thank you for the question不同。演讲者是香港人,虽然她对主持人所问的内地的情况不甚了解,是一大劣势,但她却巧妙的地使用but转而谈到香港的情况;also的使用使演讲的主题不变。同时听众理解到演讲者要从另外一个角度解释同一个问题。这种角度的变换使演讲者的劣势变成了优势。听众既为其率真而打动,又为其智慧而折服。And there's this little five year old boy, and he has won five consecutive championships, and then, of course, there were interviews and the news coverage, and everything. And when the general public read the newspaper. They frown at it. They said, "what a silly idea, to think about becoming a star." And when Andy Lau -- I'm sure all of you blow him, tile famous singer and actor -- when he read the newspaper, he said, "Wow, that's great! But ask the boy to work hard. It's not easy."

     这里演讲人以演唱比赛为切人点,以小男孩的参舞,点出了香港人对当明星十分热衷。以此呼应主持人提问。并且演讲人Support points with  specifics.以典型的例子支持论点。明星刘德华在内 地有很高的知名度,他的勤奋也是众所周知,以他的话为例,让人十分信服。本段对general public和Andy Lau不同态度的对 比,可以引起听众的思考。对比之中必有抑扬,也让听众对下段演讲人过渡到自己的观点有了思  想上的准备

Ladies and gentlemen, I think if we use the word "struggle", isn't it a bit too negative? I think better word for it is "strive." Being a star is also   profession. It is also a job that you need to work hard at. Success does not come easy. Well, if we take a look at famous actors and actresses such as lackie Chart, Chow Yun Fat, Andy Lau, Tony Lun, they are all in their mid-forties, and even fifties. Yet, what do they have in common? When they first became..., when they first started their careers as a star, or as an actor, they were described as "Cinema Poison," meaning nobody would see their films. But did they give up? No, they didn't, they didn't give up. They have been working hard all the way. And now they are famous. All over the world. All over Asia. And are they proud of themselves? Well, I suppose so. But still they work very hard. Look at Andy Lau. He's still striving for the best all the time. Every year are awards.

    本段中演讲人明确地提出了自己的观点。并且在临场仍然明确地区分struggle和strive,显示出演讲人深厚的语言功底。演讲人接着由例子过渡到谈话主题:当明星是一种职业,巧妙地把struggle的主题过渡到strive,进而谈到Being a star is also a profession.把不熟悉的主题struggle过渡到谈明星的成功这个比较熟悉的话题。这种演讲技巧十分重要,因为在短暂的几十秒钟内谈论一个十分陌生的话题,实在有难度,但是这位演讲者的巧妙过渡,既没有跑题,又谈了熟悉的话题,因此这种技巧值得学习。同时,本段列举众多内地观众十分熟悉地明星成名经历作为brief examples,做论据,支持自己的观点,使论据可靠而有力。这两句话Al lover the world.All over Asia.若能调换顺序,就更加顺畅。

    

     Ladies and gentlemen, I think there's nothing wrong if you want to be a star. It's a profession. It's a job that everybody can work for it if you  really want it. But there are qualities that you  need to possess if you want to be a star. Of Course  you have to be hard-working, like Andy Lau, like Chow Yun Fat. They're all very hard-working.

        And there is also something very, important. It is you have to have a genuine interest in this film industry. This genuine interest is very important. Because a lot of people are interested in the money, instead of the job. They just look at the statistics, like just now I was waiting in my room and I was reading this news article, there's a chart telling the people how many...well, how much those stars in China are making, l/Veil, if you are only attracted by those statistics, by the figures, the money, well, then, I do not think you can be a star. There are people who have a genuine interest in becoming a singer, like there are people who have been taking acting classes, who have been acting in secondary schools, in college like that. They have a genuine interest. Yet, then go for it.

      本段讨论了成为明星的第三个素质:感兴趣[genuine Interest],并且列举了生活中的一些实例[people only interested in money rather than film industry)来论证自己的观点。这样在立论的同时也驳斥了为金钱而当明星的错误观点。有立有废,论证严谨

     

      Ladies and gentlemen, well, I think the competition is also good. When there's a competition, we can ensure the quality. When there's no competition, well, we have to have whatever is given to us. When there's competition, we can pick what we want. Isn't that something good?

     Ladies and gentlemen, it is what I think for that struggle for stardom.

     Thank you very much.

    

     结论部分是one—sentence review of the points she presented in her talk.由“为当明星而打拼”引申到一般意义上的竞争,既紧扣主题,又加以升华。以一个反问句Isn't it something good?结尾,进一步强化了演讲人的观点。这样的结尾达到了short and to the point的效果。通过Ladies and gentlemen提示听众演讲接近尾声,重提主持人的问题,以告知听众她一直围绕这个主题展开演讲,给听众一个完整的结尾。

本篇是获得第10届“21世纪·外教社杯”全国英语演讲比赛季军的香港选手张阿旭的即兴演讲演讲充分显示了演讲人的机敏、临场应变能力和扎实的语言功底。通篇逻辑十分的清晰,而且演讲人娓娓道来,丝毫没有演讲的做作,却又极富感染力。在即兴演讲这一部分,本篇演讲人明显高人一筹。据演讲者本人介绍,这与她所在的学校要求学生做很多即兴的presentationn 

 即兴演讲(impromptu speech),顾名思义,就是指临场的、毫无准备的演讲。在前面所提到的两大比赛中,即兴演讲所占时间为1~3分钟,分值所占比重为30%~40%,在比赛中的地位十分重要。如果参赛选手想要取得优秀的成绩,那么就一定要在该部分取得高分。

即兴演讲对于使用母语演讲的人来说都非常困难,更何况是使用非母语演讲的选手?这部分非常具有挑战性,主要考察选手多方面能力:思维能力、逻辑能力和语言能力。思维能力是指选手在毫无准备的情况下对某一问题的分析能力,对问题理解的深度和宽度等;逻辑能力主要指选手是否有全局观,是否能合理搭筑整个演讲的框架,所阐述观点的层次性是否清晰;而语言能力则是指选手即席用英语进行交流沟通的能力,可检验选手的英语语言熟练度和准确度如何。那么如何应对即兴演讲呢?

在定题演讲部分,我们讨论了衡量一篇演讲好坏的普遍原则。这些原则对所有类型的演讲都适用,即兴演讲也不例外。在做即兴演讲时,也要从以下四个方面着手:内容、结构、语言以及台上演讲风格等。

 内容   在讨论即兴演讲的内容之前,先了解几个在近几年大赛即兴演讲中出现的题目。

    Is marking western holidays a sign of a modern China or of traditions sacrificed to commercial interests

     Do you think university education should be more open-minded?

 

    Are we becoming too susceptible to advertising?

 

    Which qualities do you look for in a boyfriend?

 

    If you were one representative of Peoples Congress, what advice would you give the government?

 

    题目还有很多,这里就不一一列举了。通过这几个题目,大致可以看出即兴演讲的题目涉及方方面面,从经济、政治、教育、文化、人生到国际问题,包罗万象。这也是即兴演讲具有极强挑战性的原因之一。 题目的范围之大之广对参赛选手提出了很高的要求。要求演讲者平时养成读书看报的习惯,关注周围发生的焦点问题和国际时事,积累各个领域的素材,以便谈论起某一个话题时言之有物,有的放矢;要求演讲者平时养成思考的习惯,多听不同的声音,从不同角度看问题,看问题有想法、有深度。这些都是赛前的准备工作,应多积累、丰富自己的知识内容,强化自己的观点。

那么在比赛当中,又该怎样具体应对呢?

 

    正如前面所讲的,好的内容包括好的主题以及有说服力的材料做支持。在即兴演讲中,更要注意这两点。

 

    1.强有力的材料做支持

 

    正如前面讨论过的那样,论据的类型最基本可分为三种:实例、统计数字以及引用别人的言语。对于即兴演讲来说,现场能够找到恰当的统计数字是非常困难的。因此在即兴演讲时,引用别人的言语和用实例来证明是最常见的两种方式。那么应该选择哪种类型的例子来做论据呢?在比赛现场上进行即兴演讲时,最切实可行的、最容易做到的就是用自己或自己周围发生的例子来说明你的观点,信手拈来,不用绞尽脑汁,演讲起来最自如,最自信;这样做无形之中也强化了自己的可信度,比较容易打动听众。如在“21世纪(爱立信杯”2003年第8届全国英语演讲比赛中获得第二名的南京大学学生王媛在即兴演讲中是这样说的,

 

    "If indeed I had a chance to choose for my life again, I think the time setting I would choose is in the late 1970s and the early 1980s. That was when the Chinese government began to adopt the policy of reform and openness. And the place setting I would choose is in some places in the western part of China. Why? Let me share with you my reasons.

 

    Well, when I firstly saw this, errr, heard this topic, I think it reminded me of an experience a few years ago. I still clearly remember that, uhh, at that time, some fellow students and I went to visit a primary school in a very poor village and we were working as tutors there. There, all the classrooms were in a very old building and many windows and doors were broken, so, when it was raining, all the children had to move to a corner in order not to get wet. Inside the classroom, five to six children were sharing one desk normally shared by two and many of the desks and chairs were broken, too.

 

    And immediately after we began to teach them English, it became very clear to us that many of these students were very diligent and were very willing to work hard. But later on, as we talked among ourselves, we got to know that they, many of them, could not finish their schooling just because of poverty. I think that this experience enabled us to see that we belong to a few group of, a group of few people that are fortunately enough to receive a college education."

 

    这段演讲是她真情实感的流露,表达起来自如,而且自信,也容易和听众进行真正的交流。

 

    在选择使用论据时,尤其是在竞赛当中,需要特别注意以下两个原则。

 

    (1)演讲的支持材料要切题。

 

    所选择的支持材料要为你的中心观点或主题服务,不能偏离这一点,不能跑题。记得一个学生在参加比赛时,抽到的即兴演讲题目是,“中国成为世界贸易组织的成员对于我们国家有什么主要影响?”她在演讲中讲了一个很长的故事,一个年轻人在海边拾贝壳,碰到了一个老人,以及和这个老人之间展开的对话。这个故事占了整个演讲的三分之二,然后很牵强地把这个故事和她抽到的题目联系在一起。尽管她的故事叙述得很流利,但在整个即兴演讲结束后,听众仍然不知她对这个问题的回答是什么?很显然,演讲者在赛前准备了几个故事,准备在即兴演讲时使用。的确,在赛前要做充分的准备,准备各个领域的数据、例子、权威专家的话等,做好充分的调研,以便在比赛中游刃有余。但切记你所选择的支持材料一定要与主题相关,为主题服务,能够帮助听众更加深入地了解你的观点,决不能哗众取宠。不切题的即兴演讲绝不会得高分。

 

    (2)演讲的支持材料要贴近听众。

 

    演讲的支持材料最好是听众熟悉的,贴近听众,不仅有利于听众理解、接受和吸收你的信息,而且容易产生共鸣。笔者作为辅导教师参加过多次的全国英语演讲比赛,在比赛中发现了一个很奇怪的现象。有很多学生举例子或引用别人的话时,往往愿意用国外的例子或国外名人说的话来支持他们的论点。学生也许有些许担心,“如果用土生土长的例子,外国评委可能会不知道,不了解背景,会影响他们对整个演讲的评判。”然而在一次比赛中,一位来自美国的演讲专家在做点评时说到,“不用担心我们会不了解,或听不懂。问题是作为一个外国人,我们在这里希望听到有关你们国家的人、事、思想、文化,而不是我们国家的名人如林肯、克林顿,他们说了什么,干了什么。”他一语道破了问题的关键,演讲者所说的要和你的听众拉近距离,讲一些本地发生的事情,发生的事情对听众产生了什么样的影响,用当地的文化、理念来解释你的观点,这样更容易在听众中产生共鸣。但并不是说就一定不能用国外的例子或观点。要全方位地选择论据,选择恰当的材料为你的观点服务。

 

    在“21世纪(澳门之星杯”2006年第11届全国英语演讲比赛中复旦大学的胡懿在即兴演讲(Should laws be fixed or flexible?)中是这样说的,

 

    "Well, actually, very accidentally this morning, when we were sort of "imprisoned" in that preparing room, actually we had a fierce debate over law. And now I would like to share some of my thoughts with you on whether we should adopt flexible laws or fixed laws.

 

    Well, first of all, I admit that there are some cases of injustice in our society. For example, last year there was a famous case of Wang Bingyu, which aroused a great controversy in society. Actually Wang Bingyu was a migrant worker, who failed for several times to get his payment from his boss. And obviously that boss treated him very badly. He didnt send him to hospital when he was ill, and he didnt treat him with very good food and also made him make, do extra work without any extra money. And out of a rage, Wang killed several of the, several people in charge, out of a great rage. And that case aroused a great controversy in society. Actually when I read the story, I did show some sympathy for that guy, because I think it was the fault of the boss in the first place. It was him that didnt pay him the payment that he deserved. So I feel sympathetic for him."

 

    她讲述了一个在我国曾经轰动一时的案例,台下的听众可能听说过,也可能不知道这个故事,但这毕竟是发生在听众周围的,贴近听众,这样听众便会很容易理解演讲者所要传达的信息。

 

    在一分钟的即兴演讲中,你用具体的事例来仔细阐述观点的时间可能非常受限。在这一分钟之内,你很可能只给出主要观点的框架,那么要想真正打动听众恐怕要依赖于主题和观点到底如何。

 

    2.好的主题与观点

 

    在前面谈过选择题目或角度时应遵循的一些具体原则,如:题目和角度一定是你有切身感触的;应该具有创造性,是听众感兴趣的;应该具体;应真实而有意义;所选择的观点或角度一定能经得起推敲和琢磨,是全面的。除了这些基本原则外,在比赛过程中处理即兴演讲时,还应该特别强调两点:切题和严谨。

 

    (1)切题

 

    切题最重要。一般而言,选手拿到的题目都是以问题的形式出现的。你需要表明在这个问题上的立场和观点,决不可以含糊其词,态度闪烁不定,站在中间,既谈好处又谈弊端。如果坚持这样,那么评委和听众就会认为你是在逃避,你的观点不明确,态度不明朗,那也就很难胜出。这点在CCTV杯演讲比赛中尤其重要,因为即兴演讲是为以后的辩论做准备。例如在2005年CCTV杯演讲比赛中,一位学生抽到的题目是, “Who should be the focus of investment in sports, the general population or potential Olympic champions?”当时他的回答是不偏不倚的,很显然二者都应该被照顾到,给予资金的扶持。但问题是,在这种情况下,他必须要做出选择,而不能徘徊于两者之间。否则,评委和听众就会怀疑你的态度和出发点,演讲效果自然也就大打折扣。

 

    (2) 观点的严谨性

 

    观点不能偏激,一定要严谨。这里的严谨有以下几层意思。

 

    * 观点本身能够站得住脚,有充足的材料可以说明论证。

 

    * 表达观点的语言本身要严谨,准确,尽量避免绝对化的字眼,如 “never, every, all, nothing, nobody“等,这些绝对化判断太容易遭到攻击。

 

    * 观点需要限制和修饰。要用发展性的眼光来处理你的观点。以上面那个题目来为例,如果既有大量资金扶持运动员又能让普通群众受益,那是最好的,但这是一种理想的画面。现实往往和理想有一段距离,现阶段没有足够的资金平衡二者的利益,答案又是什么呢?你可以有自己的看法和答案,但一定要有充足的论据支持。请注意:刚才我使用了现阶段三个字。这就意味着是用发展的眼光来看到问题,不仅要看到事物的现阶段,也要看到将来发展的方向——也就是期望得到的理想状态,即两类人群都会受益。

 

    * 承认你的观点有修正和完善的余地。你的观点可能只是你目前认识的一个方面,或者是现阶段你的一种想法,它仍然有完善的余地


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