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2011年12月大学六级考试题目出处和题解【更新】  

2012-03-31 21:59:34|  分类: 四六级考试 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

更多四级六级题目出处,请看下面推荐文章

Part I Writing
The Way to Success(By 季云竹)
Abraham Lincoln, a successful leader sparkling in American history, once put, “Give me six hours to chop down a tree, and I will spend the first four sharpening the axe.” Simple as his remark is, it subtly encapsulates a profound and enlightening notion that the path to success only lies under the feet of people who are well-prepared.
Currently in this progressively competitive society, it is anything but uncommon for us to see people desperately in want of success. Taking a look around, not only can we easily find students staying up late with their homework, we can also notice that a multitude of clerks step into the mansion in the early morning, then go back home after overtime. However, success, as a matter of fact, only belongs to a few of them. For instance, there is no shortage of this kind of people—who participate in numerous interviews and get nothing but a rejection slip, then they start whining time after time, “why isn’t that me?”
Just as an ancient Chinese proverb goes, “Sharp tools make good work.” Accumulation of ability and knowledge is the prerequisite of success, and once we are strong and powerful enough, the whole universe will come to assist us in chasing our dreams.
The way to success(By 胡平)
Success, the one everyone desires, plays an essential role in our daily life, because it directly determines our daily behaviors. In other words, if there is no desire for success, there will be no individuals’ development and even no advance of our society. It is the aspiration of success that promotes our growth of our individuals and society. But throughout the whole human history, how to succeed is always the most concerned topic.

Among all the factors of success, well preparation of knowledge, the basic requisition of success, should be placed on the first one. Without extensive and intensive knowledge, even if there are exterior opportunities to success, such as the parents’ assistance or friends’ recommendation, you will still never succeed, because you cannot qualify the job you have already had. The more preparation you do in advance, the more likely you will get success. As Lincoln has said, if I had six hours to chop down a tree, I would spend the first four hours sharpening the axe.
Besides the well preparation of knowledge, the preparation of confidence and interpersonal skills is also indispensable on the way to success.
快速阅读
来自英国卫报 The Guardian
Google's plan for world's biggest online library: philanthropy or act of piracy?
[1] Google has already scanned 10 million books in its bid to digitise the contents of the world's major libraries, but a copyright battle now threatens the project, with Amazon and Microsoft joining authors and publishers opposed to the scheme.
[2] In recent years the world's most venerable libraries have played host to some incongruous visitors. In dusty nooks and far-flung stacks, teams of workers dispatched by Google have been beavering away to make digital copies of books. So far, Google has scanned more than 10 million titles from libraries in America and Europe – including half a million volumes held by the Bodleian in Oxford. The exact method it uses is unclear; the company does not allow outsiders to observe the process.
[3] Why is Google undertaking such a venture, so seemingly out-of-kilter with its snazzy, hi-tech image? Why is it even interested in all those out-of-print library books, most of which have been gathering dust on forgotten shelves for decades? 1.The company claims its motives are essentially public-spirited. Its overall mission, after all, is to "organise the world's information", so it would be odd if that information did not include books. Like the Ancient Egyptians who attempted to build a library at Alexandria containing all the known world's scrolls, Google executives talk of constructing a universal online archive, a treasure trove of knowledge that will be freely available – or at least freely searchable – for all.
[4] The company likes to present itself as having lofty, utopian aspirations. "This really isn't about making money" is a mantra. "We are doing this for the good of society." As Santiago de la Mora, head of Google Books for Europe, puts it: "2.By making it possible to search the millions of books that exist today, we hope to expand the frontiers of human knowledge."
[5] Dan Clancy, the chief architect of Google Books, offers an analogy with the invention of the Gutenberg press – Google's book project, he says, will have a similar democratising effect. He talks of people in far-flung parts being able to access knowledge as never before, of search queries leading them to the one, long out-of-print book they need.
[6] And he does seem genuine in his conviction that this is primarily a philanthropic exercise. "Google's core business is search and find, so obviously what helps improve Google's search engine is good for Google," he says. "But we have never built a spreadsheet outlining the financial benefits of this, and I have never had to justify the amount I am spending to the company's founders."
[7] It is easy, talking to Clancy and his colleagues, to be swept along by their missionary zeal. But Google's book-scanning project is proving controversial. Several opponents have recently emerged, ranging from rival tech giants such as Microsoft and Amazon to small bodies representing authors and publishers across the world. In broad terms, these opponents have levelled two sets of criticisms at Google.
[8] First, they have questioned whether the primary responsibility for digitally archiving the world's books should be allowed to fall to a commercial company. 3.In a recent essay in the New York Review of Books, Robert Darnton, the head of Harvard University's library, argued that because such books are a common resource – the possession of us all – only public, not-for-profit bodies should be given the power to control them.
[9] The second, related criticism is that Google's scanning of books is actually illegal. This allegation has led to Google becoming mired in a legal battle whose scope and complexity makes the Jarndyce and Jarndyce case in Bleak House look straightforward.
[10] 4.At its centre, however, is one simple issue: that of copyright. The inconvenient fact about most books, to which Google has arguably paid insufficient attention, is that they are protected by copyright. Copyright laws differ from country to country, but in general protection extends for the duration of an author's life and for a substantial period afterwards, thus allowing the author's heirs to benefit. (In Britain and America, this post-death period is 70 years.) This means, of course, that almost all of the books published in the 20th century are still under copyright – and last century saw more books published than in all previous centuries combined. Of the roughly 40 million books in US libraries, for example, an estimated 32 million are in copyright. Of these, some 27 million are out of print.
[11] Outside the US, Google has made sure only to scan books that are out of copyright and thus in the "public domain" (works such as the Bodleian's first edition of Middlemarch, which anyone can read for free on Google Books Search).
[12] But, within the US, the company has scanned both in-copyright and out-of-copyright works. 5.In its defence, Google points out that it displays only snippets of books that are in copyright – arguing that such displays are "fair use". But critics allege that by making electronic copies of these books without first seeking the permission of copyright holders, Google has committed piracy.
[13] "The key principle of copyright law has always been that works can be copied only once authors have expressly given their permission," says Piers Blofeld, of the Sheil Land literary agency in London. "Google has reversed this – it has simply copied all these works without bothering to ask."
[14] 6.In 2005, the Authors Guild of America, together with a group of US publishers and publishers, launched a class action suit against Google that, after more than two years of wrangling, ended with an announcement last October that Google and the claimants had reached an out-of-court settlement. The full details are staggeringly complicated – the text alone runs to 385 pages – and trying to summarise it is no easy task. "Part of the problem is that it is basically incomprehensible," says Blofeld, one of the settlement's most vocal British critics.
[15] Broadly, the deal provides a mechanism for Google to reimburse authors and publishers whose rights it has breached (including giving them a share of any future revenue it generates from their works). In exchange for this, the rights holders agree not to sue Google in future.
[16] The settlement stipulates that a body known as the Books Rights Registry will represent the interests of US copyright holders. Authors and publishers with a copyright interest in a book scanned by Google who make themselves known to the registry will be entitled to receive a payment – in the region of $60 per book – as compensation.
[17] Additionally, the settlement hands Google the power – but only with the agreement of individual rights holders – to exploit its database of out-of-print books. It can include them in subscription deals sold to libraries or sell them individually under a consumer licence. 7.It is these commercial provisions that are proving the settlement's most controversial aspect.
[18] Critics point out that, by giving Google the right to commercially exploit its database, the settlement paves the way for a subtle shift in the company's role from provider of information to seller. "8.Google's business model has always been to provide information for free, and sell advertising on the basis of the traffic this generates," points out James Grimmelmann, associate professor at New York Law School. Now, he says, because of the settlement's provisions, Google could become a significant force in bookselling.
[19] 9.Interest in this aspect of the settlement has focused on "orphan" works, where there is no known copyright holder – these make up an estimated 5% to 10% of the books Google has scanned. Under the settlement, when no rights holders come forward and register their interest in a work, commercial control automatically reverts to Google. Google will be able to display up to 20% of orphan works for free, include them in its subscription deals to libraries and sell them to individual buyers under the consumer licence.
[20] "The deal has in effect handed Google a swath of intellectual copyright. It is a mammoth potential bookselling market," says Blofeld. He adds it is no surprise that Amazon, which currently controls 90% of the digital books market, is becoming worried.
[21] But Dan Clancy of Google dismisses the idea that, by gaining control over out-of-print and orphan works, Google is securing for itself a significant future revenue stream. He points out that out-of-print books represent only a tiny fraction of the books market – between 1% and 2%. "This idea that we are gaining access to a vast market here – I really don't think that is true.
[22] James Gleick, an American science writer and member of the Authors Guild, broadly agrees. He says that, although Google's initial scanning of in-copyright books made him uncomfortable, the settlement itself is a fair deal for authors.
[23] "The thing that needs to be emphasised is that this so-called market over which Google is being given dominance – the market in out-of-print books – doesn't currently exist. That's why they're out of print. In real life, I can't see what the damage is – it's only good."
[24] It is by no means certain that the settlement will be enacted – it is the subject of a fairness hearing in the US courts. But if it is enacted, Google will in effect be off the hook as far as copyright violations in the US are concerned. Many people are seriously concerned by this – and the company is likely to face challenges in other courts around the world.
[25] Over the coming months, we will hear a lot more about the Google settlement and its ramifications. Although it's a subject that may seem obscure and specialised, it concerns one of the biggest issues affecting publishing and, indeed, other creative industries – the control of digital rights.
[26] No one knows the precise use Google will make of the intellectual property it has gained by scanning the world's library books, and the truth, as Gleick points out, is that the company probably doesn't even know itself. 10.But what is certain is that, in some way or another, Google's entrance into digital bookselling will have a significant impact on the book world in years to come.
题目:
1. Google claims its plan for the world’s biggest online library is _____
A. to save out-of-print books in libraries.
B. to serve the interest of the general public
C. to encourage reading around the world
D. to promote its core business of searching
【解析】该题问的是Google所声称的自己图书馆计划的目的。根据顺序原则该题靠前,同时注意到第三段开头连续并列why,提示第三段很有可能提到原因或目的。用claim定位至第三段第三句,该句motive引出后面Google声称的原因是“本质上被公众精神驱动”,三段末更提到是为了所有人的知识需求。核心名词public及句意都对应B选项。
2. According to Santiago de la Mora, Google’s book-scanning project will
A. help the broad masses of readers
B. broaden humanity’s intellectual horizons
C. make full use of the power of its search engine
D. revolutionise the entire book industry
【解析】该题问的是Santiago de la Mora对Google图书扫面项目的看法。用人名可定位至四段中,之后该人提到Google该项目能expand the frontiers of human knowledge,即拓广人类知识的范围。对应B选项。核心名词knowledge被改为同义词intellectual,frontier被同义替换为horizon,动词expand被同义替换为broaden。
3. Opponents of Google Books believe that digitally archiving the world's books should be controlled by_______.
A. the world’s tech giants
B. the world’s leading libraries
C. non-profit organizations
D. multinational companies
【解析】该题问的是反对Google的人对数字知识控制者的看法。用opponents可定位至第7段前后,control可进一步定位至第八段最后Robert Darnton的观点。该人认为只有public, not-for-profit bodies 可以有控制数字知识的权利,对应C选项。Bodies被同义替换为organization。
4. Google has involved itself in a legal battle as it ignored______.
A. the copyright of authors of out-of -print books
B. the interest of traditional sellers
C. the copyright of the books it scanned
D. the differences of in-print and out-of-print books.
【解析】该题问的是Google卷入官司的原因。由legal battle可定位至第9段前后,用之后第10段短首出现的however可进一步将重点信息圈定到第10首。该段首句即提到问题的中心是copyright,对应C选项。
5. Google defends its scanning in-copyright books by saying that __________.
A. making electronic copies of books is not a violation of copyright
B. the online display of in-copyright books is not for commercial use
C. it is willing to compensate the copyright holders
D. it displays only a small part of their content
【解析】该题问的是Google自己对自己涉及侵权行为的辩护。用defend可定位至第12段第二句的defence。该句中Google指出自己仅显示了受版权保护图书的小片段(snippets)。该词若不认识,也可结合前面的only猜出其否定名词的性质。对应D选项。Snippets被同义改写为a small part。
6. What do we learn about the class action suit against Google?
A. It ended in a victory for the Authors Guild of America.
B . It was settled after more than two years of negotiations.
C . It failed to protect the interest of American publishers.
D. It could lead to more out-of-court settlements of such disputes.
【解析】该题问的是关于针对Google的class action的相关信息。用class action可定位至第14段首句。该句提到这个事件经过两年多的争论(wrangling),最终以一个宣言(announcement)实现庭外和解(out-of-court settlement)。对应B选项,wrangling被同义替换为negotiation。若不认识wrangling,一方面可由该句退出其大致表示“纠结”的意思,另一方面可由settle, more than two years等关键表达确定B选项与原文信息的对应关系。
7. What remained controversial after the class action suit ended?
A. The compensation for copyright holders.
B. The change in Google's business model.
C. Google's further exploitation of its database.
D. The commercial provisions of the settlement.
【解析】该题问的是class action之后的争议点。用controversial可定位至第17段末句的,该句用强调句形式强调是该事件的商业规定(commercial provisions)成为最为争议的一个方面,原文信息完整原样对应D选项。
8. While_______, Google makes money by selling advertising.
【解析】该题问的是Google在卖广告挣钱同时做的另一件事。用sell advertising可定位至18段中部,该句提到Google的商业模式一直是免费提供信息(provide information for free), 同时在这产生的访问流量(traffic)的基础之上卖广告挣钱。可知除了卖广告之外,Google更基本的服务时免费提供信息。由于空前是while,空中应填充动名词形式providing information for free。
9. Books whose copyright holders are not known are called_______.
【解析】该题问的是版权拥有者不明的书籍的别称。由copyright holder not known可定位至第19段首句,该句用破折号将"orphan" works解释为没有已知版权拥有者的书籍作品(there is no known copyright holder)。可知答案即填入orphan works。
10. Google’s entrance into digital bookselling will tremendously _______ in the future.
【解析】该句问到的是Google进入数字图书界后未来的相关情况。由该句说法以及digital bookselling可定位至全文末句。该句用转折强Google进入数字图书界会对未来的图书世界有很大影响(will have a significant impact on the book world in years to come)。由于题干缺少动词成分,因此要由原文同义改写为动词表达,填入influence the book world。只需将名词impact改为同义动词influence,名词表达book world原样保留。原文中significant等于题干中的tremendous,in years to come等于题干中的in the future,都不用再抄入。
听力部分参考答案:
11. D) Listen to the recorded notes while driving。
12. C) The man lacks confidence in playing the part。
13. A) Arranging a bed for a patient。
14. B) H is too busy to accept more responsibility。
15. C) He has left his position in the government。
16. D) The man is well informed about the space shuttle missions。
17. A) At a car renting company。
29. A) While holding a burial ceremony for a pet mouse, they were killing pest mice。
30. D) They take it for granted。
31. A) Tidal restlessness。
32. B) They are adventurers from all over the world。
33. D) A murder mystery。
34. C) It is unhealthy for the viewers。
35. B) He can’t resist the temptation of T.V. either
Section C Compound Dictation
In the past, one of the biggest disadvantages of machines has been their inability to work on a micro scale. For example, doctors did not have devices allowing them to go inside the human body to (36)detect health problems or to perform (37)delicate surgery. Repair crews did not have a way of(38) identifying broken pipes located deep within a high-rise (39)apartment building. However, that’s about to change. Advances in computers and biophysics have started a micro miniature(40) revolution that allows scientists to envision and in some cases actually build microscopic machines. These devices promise to(41) dramatically change the way we live and work.
Micromachines already are making an impact. At Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, research scientists have designed a 4-inch silicon chip that holds 700 tiny(42) primitive motors. At Lucas Nova Sensor in Fremont, California, scientists have perfected the world’s first microscopic blood-pressure sensor. Threaded through a person’s blood (43)vessels, the sensor can provide blood pressure readings at the valve of the heart itself.
(44)Although simple versions of miniature devices have had an impact, advanced versions are still several years away.Auto manufacturers, for example, are trying to use tiny devices(45) that can sense when to release an airbag and how to keep engines and breaks operating efficiently. Some futurists envision nanotechnology also being used to explore the deep sea in small submarine, or even to launch finger-sized rockets packed with micro miniature instruments.
“There is an explosion of new ideas and applications,” So, (46)when scientists now think about future machines doing large and complex tasks, they’re thinking smaller than ever before.
阅读简答题
节选自Robert Pfister与Patrick Tierney所著Recreation, event, and tourism businesses: start-up and sustainable operations一书中Leadership in Business一章
Leadership is the second most significant word in today’s competitive business environment because it directs the manager of a business to focus inward on their personal capabilities and style. Experts on leadership will quickly point out that “how things get done” influences the success of the outcomes and indicates a right way and a wrong way to do things. When a noted leader on the art of management, Peter Drucker, coined the phrase “Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things,” he was seeking to clarify the distinctions he associates with the terms.
When Stephen Covey, founder and director of the Leadership Institute, explored leadership styles in the past decade, he focused on the habits of a great number of highly effective individuals. His Seven Habits of Highly Effective People became a popular bestseller very quickly. His ideas forced a reexamination of the early leadership paradigm, which he observed centered on traits found in the character ethic and the personality ethic. The former ethic suggested success was founded on integrity, modesty, loyalty, courage, patience, and so forth. The personality ethic suggested it was one’s attitude, not behavior, that inspired success, and this ethic was founded on a belief of positive mental attitude. In contrast to each of these ideas, Covey advocates that leaders need to understand universal principles of effectiveness, and he highlights how vital it is for leaders to first personally manage themselves if they are to enjoy any hope of outstanding success in their work environments. To achieve a desired vision for your business, it is vital that you have a personal vision of where you are headed and what you value. Business leadership means that managers need to “put first things first,” which implies that before leading others, you need to be clear on your own values, abilities, and strengths and be seen as trustworthy.
47. To be good leaders, managers must pay close attention to their own _____.
【解析】该题问的是为了成为好的领导,管理者们必须特别关注他们自己的什么方面。由顺序原则该题应位于首段,注意到题干中pay close attention to同义改写成了首段首句的focus inward on,因此该句该表达后的名词成分capabilities and style即为答案。其前面的personal与题干own重合,不用填入。
48. According to Peter Drucker, leaders should be good at _____.
【解析】该题问的是Peter Drucker认为领导应擅长什么。用人名课定位至首段末句,该人强调领导应该“做正确的事”,将这个动词表达doing the right thing填入即可。
49. The personality ethic suggests that people are likely to succeed if they have _____.
【解析】该题的是人格魅力(personality ethic)提出人更容易成功的条件是什么。用personality ethic可定位至第二段第三句前后,其后的该段第五句详细阐述到personality ethic认为是一个人的态度在激发其成功,并指出这种魅力是基于积极精神态度的信仰。可知成功的重点是态度,并且是积极的态度。答案填入a positive mental attitude。注意a不能省略,这里表示“一种积极的精神态度”,也最好不要去掉a而在attitude后加s。
50. According to Stephen Covey, leaders who hope to achieve outstanding success need first of all _____.
【解析】该题问的是Stephen Covey认为那些想获得杰出成功的领导需要先做的事。用Covey及outstanding success可以定位到第二段第六句,Covey认为想享受杰出成功的领导最重要(vital)的是要先(first)自己管理好自己,因此把这个最重要的先决条件to personally manage themselves填入即可。注意need后面要接不定式,to不可少。另外themselves可以指代该题题干中的leaders,因此可不还原。
51. Good leadership requires one to know one’s own strengths and be able to win people’s _____.
【解析】该题问的是好的领导能力要求一个人除了了解自身长处,还要能够赢得别人的什么方面。由strength可定位到全文末句,提到在领导他人前一个人要先清除自己的价值、能力和长处,同时还要被别人视为可信的,即是说要赢得他人信任。将原文形容词trustworthy改为名词trust填入即可。
仔细阅读1
来自Slate: Trade is the New Plastics
来源:http://www.slate.com/articles/business/moneybox/2010/08/trade_is_the_new_plastics.html
What's the one word of advice a well-meaning professional would give to a recent college graduate today? China? India? How about trade?
When the Commerce Department reported last week that the trade deficit in June approached $50 billion, it set off a new round of economic doomsaying. Imports, which soared to $200.3 billion in the month, are subtracted in the calculation of gross domestic product. The larger the trade deficit, the smaller the GDP. Should such imbalances continue, pessimists say, they could contribute to slower growth.
But there's another way of looking at the trade data. Over the past two years, the figures on imports and exports seem not to signal a double-dip recession—a renewed decline in the broad level of economic activity in the United States—but an economic expansion.
The rising volume of trade—more goods and services shuttling in and out of the United States—is good news for many sectors. Companies engaged in shipping, trucking, rail freight, delivery, and logistics have all been reporting better than expected results. The rising numbers signify growing vitality in foreign markets—when we import more stuff, it puts more cash in the hands of people around the world, and U.S. exports are rising because more foreigners have the ability to buy the things we produce and market. The rising tide of trade is also good news for people who work in trade-sensitive businesses, especially those that produce commodities for which global demand sets the price—agricultural goods, mining, metals, oil.
And while exports always seem to lag, U.S. companies are becoming more involved in the global economy with each passing month. General Motors sells as many cars in China as in America each month. While that may not do much for imports, it does help GM's balance sheet—and hence makes the jobs of U.S.-based executives more stable.
One great challenge for the U.S. economy is slack domestic consumer demand. Americans are paying down debt, saving more, and spending more carefully. That's to be expected, given what we've been through. But there's a bigger challenge. Can U.S.-based businesses, large and small, figure out how to get a piece of growing global demand? Unless you want to pick up and move to India, or Brazil, or China, the best way to do that is through trade. It may seem obvious, but it's no longer enough simply to do business with our friends and neighbors here at home.
Companies and individuals who don't have a strategy to export more, or to get more involved in foreign markets, or to play a role in global trade, are shutting themselves out of the lion's share of economic opportunity in our world.
52. How do pessimists interpret the U.S. trade deficit in June?
A. It could lead to slower growth of the national economy.
B. It reflects Americans’ preference for imported goods.
C. It signifies a change in American economic structure.
D. It is the result of America’s growing focus on domestic market.
【解析】该题问的是悲观主义者对六月美国贸易赤字的解读。用deficit和June可定位至文章第二段,用pessimists可进一步定至第二段末句,该句中悲观主义者提到如果这种贸易不平衡继续,很可能会导致发展变慢,这直接对应A选项。
53. What does the author say about the trade data of the past two years?
A. It indicates that economic activities in the U.S. have increased.
B. It reflects the fluctuations in the international market.
C. It shows that U.S. economy is slipping further into recession.
D. It signals decreasing domestic demand for goods and services.
【解析】该题问的是作者对过去两年贸易数据的说法。用trade data和past two years可定位至第三段第二句,作者提到近两年的数据并没有指示出经济衰退,插入语后用转折引出数据指示的其实是一种经济扩张(economic expansion)。由此可知作者对数据的解读是偏正向、乐观的。四个答案中唯一正向的是A,原文的expansion被同义改写为activities increased。
54. Who particularly benefit from the rising volume of trade?
A. People who have expertise in international trade.
B. Producers of agricultural goods and raw materials.
C. Consumers who favor imported goods and services.
D. Retailers dealing in foreign goods and services.
【解析】该题问的是谁从上升的贸易容量中特别受益。用rising volume of trade可定位至第四段段首,不难推知该段整体都在谈受益对象。从第二句起分别提到各运输业获益大,一直到末句提到贸易敏感行业人也获益良多,末句最后用especially递进引出受益最多的行业,这对应题干的particularly,因而原文这之后提到的价格受全球需求影响的行业的制造商,特别是农业、矿产、金属行业和石油,即为受益最明显的行业。这对应B选项。agricultural没有替换,raw materials(工业原材料)同义替换了原文的矿产、石油和金属行业。
55. What is one of the challenges facing the American economy?
A. Decreasing productivity.
B. People’s reluctance to spend.
C. Competition from overseas.
D. Slack trade activities.
【解析】该题问的是美国经济面临的一个挑战是什么。用challenges可定位至第六段首句。该段首句提到第一个挑战是国内需求不足,该段中用but引出第二个更大的挑战则是美国产业如何参与获取及利用的全球市场需求。B选项“人们不愿意消费”是对第一个挑战的同义改写。
56. What is the author’s advice to U.S. companies and individuals?
A. To import more cheap good from developing countries.
B. To be alert to fluctuations in foreign markets.
C. To increase their market share overseas.
D. To move their companies to where labor is cheaper.
【解析】该题问的是作者对美国公司及个人的建议。根据顺序原则定位至末段。末段作者提到任何不增加出口、不参与国际市场、不在国际贸易中发挥作用的美国公司和个人都会将自己隔绝在巨大的全球经济机会份额之外。不难看出作者建议美国公司和个人更多参与国际贸易,增大其在全球经济中所占份额,这对应C选项。
仔细阅读2
选自英国卫报(The Guardian):More UK universities should be profiting from ideas
A recurring criticism of the UK's university sector is its perceived weakness in translating new knowledge into new products and services.
Recently, the UK National Stem Cell Network warned the UK could lose its place among the world leaders in stem cell research unless adequate funding and legislation could be assured, despite an annual ?40m spend by the Department of Health on all kinds of research.
However, we do have to challenge the unthinking complaint that the sector does not do enough in taking ideas to market. The most recent comparative data on the performance of universities and research institutions in Australia, Canada, USA and UK shows that, from a relatively weak starting position, the UK now leads on many indicators of commercialisation activity.
When viewed at the national level, the policy interventions of the past decade have helped transformed the performances of UK universities. Evidence suggests the UK's position is much stronger than in the recent past and is still showing improvement. But national data masks the very large variation in the performance of individual universities. The evidence shows that a large number of universities have fallen off the back of the pack, a few perform strongly and the rest chase the leaders.
This type of uneven distribution is not peculiar to the UK and is mirrored across other economies. In the UK, research is concentrated: less than 25% of universities are receive of 75% of the research funding. These same universities are also the institutions producing the greatest share of PhD graduates, science citations, patents and license income. The effect of policies generating long-term resource concentration has also created a distinctive set of universities which are research-led and commercially active. It seems clear that the concentration of research and commercialisation work creates differences between universities.
The core objective for universities which are research-led must be to maximise the impact of their research efforts. Their purpose is not to generate funds to add to the bottom line of the university or to substitute other income streams. Rather, these universities should be generating the widest range of social, economic and environmental benefits. In return for the scale of investment, they should share their expertise in order to build greater confidence in the sector.
Part of the economic recovery of the UK will be driven by the next generation of research commercialisation spilling out of our universities. On the evidence presented in my report, there are three dozen universities in the UK which are actively engaged in advanced research training and commercialisation work.
If there was a greater coordination of technology transfer offices within regions and a simultaneous investment in the scale and functions of our graduate schools, universities could, and should, play a key role in positioning the UK for the next growth cycle.
57. What does the author think of UK universities in terms of commercialization?
A. They still have a place among the world leaders.
B. They have lost their leading position in many ways.
C. They do not regard it as their responsibility.
D. They fail to convert knowledge into money.
【解析】该题问的是作者对英国大学在商业化方面的看法。由顺序原则可定位至文首。首段提出人们对英国大学在知识到产品服务转化过程方面的批评,二段整体用调查数据证明首段对英国的大学的负面观点,提出英国大学在干细胞研究领域将会失去世界领先地位。但这些都并非作者观点,同时在第三段短首出现转折,然后引入作者方面的观点。可知作者观点与首二段相反,他并不认为英国失去世界领先地位,三段末句更提出英国大学在许多商业活动方面仍领先全球。可知作者认为英国大学仍大体领先世界,总体持正面肯定态度。四个选项中唯一持正面态度的为A。
58. What does the author say about the national data on UK universities’ performance in commercialization?
A. It masks the fatal weaknesses of government policy.
B. It does not reflect the differences among universities.
C. It does not rank UK universities in a scientific way.
D. It indicates their ineffective use of government resources.
【解析】该题问的是作者对英国大学商业化表现的国家统计数据的看法。由national data可定位至第四段转折后,提到数据掩盖了单个大学之间表现的差距。对应B选项。Mask同义改写为does not reflect,variation同义改写为differences。
59.We can infer from Paragraph 5 that “policy interventions” refers to ___.
A. concentration of resources in a limited number of universities
B. compulsory cooperation between universities and industries
C. government aid to non-research-oriented universities
D. fair distribution of funding for universities and research institutions
【解析】该题考察“policy interventions”的意思。仅从字面意思“政府干预”还不足以选出答案,需要结合上下文。该短语所在的第四段提到这种“政府干预”促进了英国大学整体表现的提高,但之后转折指出,英国大学个体之间存在较大差异。第五段首更是将第四段强调的现象总结为“分配不平均”(uneven distribution)。由此可知这种“政府干预”指的应是政府对一部分大学的偏向性支持,而对更多的大学则支持不够,造成资源分配不均。对应A选项“资源集中在少数大学中”。
60. What dose the author suggest research-led universities do?
A. Fully utilize their research to benefit all sectors of society.
B. Generously share their facilities with those short of funds.
C. Publicise their research to win international recognition.
D. Spread their influence among top research institutions.
【解析】该题问的是作者对研究导向型大学的建议。由research-led universities可定位至全文第六段。该段中部用rather转折引出作者觉得这些大学应该(should)产生最广的社会、经济与环境等各方面效益(widest range),应该分享他们的专业技术资源,让整个领域(build greater confidence in the sector)都构筑起信心,此即为建议。对应A选项,仅有A强调了范围是all sectors of society。B提到的与缺乏资金的学校分享设施、C提到的扩大国际影响与D提到的扩大在顶级研究机构中的影响范围均太窄。
61. How can the university sector play a key role in the UK’s economic growth?
A. By establishing more regional technology transfer offices.
B. By asking the government to invest in technology transfer research.
C. By promoting technology transfer and graduate school education.
D. By increasing the efficiency of technology transfer agencies.
【解析】该题问的是大学如何在英国经济发展中扮演关键角色。由play a key role定位至全文末句。末句提到两个要素,一是区域间技术转移的更好协调,二是对研究院所规模及功能上同步进行投资。仅有C选项结合了这两个要点。A提到的技术转移办公室数量的增加、D提到的提升技术转移机构的效率,均是原文没有的信息。B选项将技术转移和投资这两个不想关的信息混到了一起。
【总结】本次六级考试阅读部分出题角度仍保留了六级的一贯特征,难度并不太大。快速阅读答案多能通过定位迅速查找到。简答题部分也比较方便查找,需要考生做变化的点不多。仔细阅读方面,正确选项依然以题干定位处就近信息的同义改写和替换为主,错误选项的迷惑性也不强,多可通过核心词、态度倾向等较快排除。文中转折、递进等依旧是考察重点。文章内容方面,依旧是大家较为熟悉的经济、教育等热点话题,语言难度也不大。值得注意的是这次四六级考试都选择了多篇来自英国卫报的文章,之前卫报文章页选择过,可见六级对这类英美主流报刊的喜爱。这种与欧美主流生活较为接近的话题以及特色性报刊可以成为大家平常泛读的一个选择。
原文来自时报周刊(Times)
The Truth About Plastic 全文摘自美国时代周刊
原文地址:http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1821664,00.html
If you know where to find a good plastic-free shampoo, can you tell Jeanne Haegele? Last September, the 28-year-old Chicago resident 62.resolved to cut plastics out of her life. The marketing coordinator was concerned about 63.what the chemicals leaching out of some common types of plastic might be doing to her body. She was also worried about the damage all the plastic 64.rubbish was doing to the environment. So she 65.hopped on her bike and rode to the nearest grocery store to see what she could find that didn't 66.include plastic. "I went in and 67.barely bought anything," Haegele says. She did 68.purchase some canned food and a carton of milk—69.only to discover later that both containers were 70.lined with plastic resin. "Plastic," she says, "just seemed like it was in everything."
She's right. Back in the 1960s, plastic was well 71.on its way to becoming a staple of American life. The U.S. produced 28 million tons of plastic waste in 2005--27 million tons of which 72.ended up in landfills. Our food and water come 73.wrapped in plastic. It's used in our phones and our computers, the cars we drive and the planes we ride in. But the 74.infinitely adaptable substance has its dark side. Environmentalists fret about the petroleum needed to make it. Parents worry about the possibility of 75.toxic chemicals making their way from 76.household plastic into children's bloodstreams. Which means Haegele isn't the only person trying to cut plastic out of her life--she isn't 77.even the only one blogging about this kind of 78.endeavor. But those who've tried know it's 79.far from easy to go plastic-free. "These things seems to be so common 80.that it is practically impossible to avoid coming into 81.contact with them," says Frederick vom Saal, a biologist at the University of Missouri.
82.You shouldn't have run across the road without looking. You (也许会被车撞倒的).
答案 might have been knocked down by the car
考点解析:
考点一:虚拟语气之对于过去发生事情的推测,具体情况有三种
1 对于过去事情的十分确定的推测 :must have done
2对于过去发生事情的可能性推测: might have done
3 对于过去发生事情的不可能性推测:couldn’t have done
而这句话是讲“你本不该在没有没看周围的情况下横穿马路的,这样你也许会被车撞的。”这里 “也许会被车撞”是对 “你横穿马路”这一过去的行为做出的可能性的后果推测,满足情况3 故选用might have done
考点二:固定搭配 撞到 :knock down
83.By no means (他把自己当成专家) although he knows a lot about the field.
答案 should he regard himself as an expert
考点解析 :否定词或短语前置于句首时需要部分倒装
By no means 否定短语前置
He should regard himself as an expert 部分倒装
提前情态动词should
should he regard himself as an expert
84.He doesn't appreciate the sacrifice his friends have made for him, (把他们所做的视作理所当然).
答案;and takes what they have done/ it for granted
考点解析:固定搭配视。。为理所当然 take sth for granted
85.Janet told me that she would rather her mother (不干涉她的婚姻).
答案 hadn’t interfered with her marriage
考点解析:此处是虚拟语气考点
1 would rather do sth 表示真实语气
2 would rather也可以接从句表虚拟语气且从句的连接词that可以省略掉 。
而这里初步判断是she would rather (that)her mother 这种形式,属于2是虚拟语气。因为would rather do sth 时 候是没有用would rather sb do sth 这种表达的。而would rather 后接虚拟语气若使现在的用 did ,若是过去的用had done。 故此处用 hadn’t interfered with her marriage 。
86.To keep up with the expanding frontiers of scholarship, Edward Wilson


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