注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

英语演讲与辩论博客

外研社杯、21世纪杯、希望之星;演讲、视频

 
 
 

日志

 
 

英语演讲课程教学大纲  

2011-02-16 10:12:56|  分类: 英语演讲教学(大 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

英语演讲课程教学大纲 - 斯碧驰 - 英语演讲与辩论博客
 

相关教学链接:

美国大学上公共演讲课 教学内容                                     英文演讲课“进驻”高校,万事俱备
借鉴名校经验, 建立演讲辩论培训基地             《英语演讲与辩论》教学大纲
演讲比赛优胜选手是如何学习英语(HOT重要

英语演讲中的诉诸艺术

英语演讲课程教学大纲 - 斯碧驰 - 英语演讲与辩论博客

摘 要:本文以亚里士多德的修辞理论为指导,分析英语演讲中亚里士多德提出的三种诉诸手段,即理性诉诸、情感诉诸和人品诉诸的作用。这三种手段的最终目的都是为了加强劝说的效果,达到演讲者劝说的意图。笔者曾参加全国英语演讲大赛,文章以大赛选手的演讲及名人演说的实例为佐证,以典型、生动的材料论证三诉诸手段的重要性。本文旨在对英语演讲技巧进行实证性的研究,总结和归纳成功的英语演讲的要素,为大学生英语演讲爱好者提供指导。< font>
  关键词:修辞;诉诸;演讲
  [中图分类号]H315
  [文献标识码]A
  [文章编号]1006-2831(2007) 11-0051-6
  Abstract: This paper attempts to analyze the significant role that rational appeal, emotional appeal and ethical appeal play in the English speeches in the light of Aristotle’s rhetoric theory. These three appeals serve to achieve the ultimate goal of strengthening the persuasive force of the speakers who aim to inform, and to persuade. The sample data has been collected from some prize-winning speeches and classic speeches in history in addition to my speech draft in nationwide English speech competition. The sample analyses testify to my conclusion that rational appeal, emotional appeal, and ethical appeal are very important part of successful public speaking; used creatively they can help to establish the credibility of the speaker, arouse the desired emotions in the audience and get them around to accept the speaker’s way of reasoning and eventually identity the speaker with the audience. This paper has the practical purpose of offering some guidance in theory and practice to students interested in public speaking, an important skill in modern society.
  Key words: rhetoric, appeal, speech
  
  1.引言
  
  公共演讲的历史可以追溯到公元前五世纪,在古希腊的体制下,当时公民不得不在法庭上为自己辩护。接下来的几百年里,一批对语言的力量和修辞感兴趣的哲学家成为了最早的一批修辞学家。他们中的大多数认为研究修辞能够提高演讲的效力。其中最著名的要数亚里士多德,他认为修辞实际上首先关注的是话语语篇,即口头表达的最初形式。根据这一理论,修辞被定义为发现对任意主题的劝说手段的艺术。换而言之,修辞首先是劝说的艺术。当代修辞理论比以前覆盖的研究领域更广,但劝说的概念仍是当代修辞理论的基石。从功能的角度划分,英语演讲可以分为三类:事实演讲、价值演讲和政策演讲。这三类演讲的目的是告知或是劝说。即使是告知性演讲,演说者往往想证明某些证据是真实的,而其它证据是不可信的。除了这三种基本的类型之外,还有纪念演讲,比如总统就职演说、受奖感言、餐后演说。这些演讲是用于表扬、表达感激和娱乐的。< font>
  但是,无论是哪一种演讲,目的都是劝说。毫无疑问,成功的演讲是由很多因素决定的,如话题、内容、结构、语言和表达等。所有这些因素都是相互联系,不可分割的。所有这些都可以从亚里士多德提出的理性诉诸、道德诉诸和情感诉诸的角度审视和分析。因为劝说是目的,结构、内容、语言和表达都是为了加强三诉诸,最终达到劝说的目的。本文通过选取各种演讲例子,论述有效的诉诸在成功的演讲中的作用。笔者认为研究三诉诸的创造性使用,并分析一些有效的实例,是对劝说性演讲实证研究的最有效的方式。这种方法与亚里士多德观察、分析、提出原则的传统是一致的,能指导有效的演讲。< font>
  
  2.理性诉诸
  
  理性诉诸就是利用逻辑和证据来说明某一观点。利用理性诉诸,演讲者诉诸听众的理智和理解。< font>
  一般说来,理性诉诸(逻辑诉诸)需要强有力的论据。因此,演讲者应寻求证据(事实、数据、个人经历、专家权威、访谈、观众、轶事)。具体的例子能有效地阐述观点、概念和立场。这是因为生动而活泼的例子能影响听众的信念和行为。没有例子的思想是模糊的、无生气的、枯燥的;但有了恰当的例子,思想就变得具体、生动和有趣。< font>
  在第八届“21世纪杯”英语演讲赛中,来自北京语言大学的胡雪举了下面的例子说明环境污染给旅游景点造成的严重威胁:“The Fragrant Hill in the western suburb of Beijing is now almost bereft of birds because of human interference, and it is sometimes parodied as ‘Nasty Hill’ because of the unpleasant smell coming from the chimneys of roadside restaurants.”这个例子更有效地说明人类随意的行为破坏了美丽的香山。< font>
  在第九届“21世纪杯”英语演讲赛中,来自外交学院的范舒爽讲述了她在课堂上听到的一个故事:“Once, an important business negotiation was held in Shanghai. And the two parties were meeting for the first time. Unfortunately, when the two representatives first shook hands, one gentleman failed to make eye contact, distracted instead by cameras televising the event. It is not surprising that they have done no business since that meeting.”通过讲这个故事,她强调交际技巧在商业交往中非常重要。< font>
  如果例子能配上数据,那么例子将能更有效地说明事件发生的频率。列举数据也为了说明某些问题不是偶然的,而是反映了一个模式,特别是问题的一定的范围、一定的大小。

< font>下面的演讲选自1999年国际英语演讲赛中南非选手Nicholas Marais的演讲。他用数据表明英语这门语言在新千年如何重要,如何普遍:“Time magazine recently suggested that by the turn of the millennium, English will be the lingua franca for one quarter of the world’s population. Already today sixty percent of the world’s television and radio broadcasts are produced and delivered in English. Seventy percent of the world’s mail addressed in English.”通过引用著名的《时代》周刊上的数据,这位选手有效地说明了英语作为一门国际语言的重要性和普遍性。
  同样,美国前总统尼克松在北京对外经贸大学的演讲中列举了一串数据:“In 1972, there were no Americans as tourists in the P.R.C; last year there were over 100,000. In 1972, there were no students from the P.R.C. studying in the United States; last year there were over 12,000. In 1972, there was no trade between the two countries; last year trade went over six billion dollars.”这些数据有力地说明中美两国在建立合作关系方面前景广阔。
  如果演讲者并非某一话题的专家,或是话题极具争议,专家的话就极为有用;也可以用同龄人的话——也就是普通人而不是名人的话。比如,如果演讲是关于盲人遇到的困难,引用盲人自己的话是最有效的,因为专家的观点非常有限。名言常用于加强道德诉诸,这一点将在第四节详述。
  理性诉诸另一个主要的部分就是讲道理,如果同时能结合例子、数据和名言就能加强演讲者的说服力。好的演讲者应该有力地讲道理,但更重要的是让听众接受演讲者的说理方式。演讲者可以从具体的事件说理,也可以从一般的原则说理。此外,演讲者也可以用“causal reasoning or analogical reasoning”。但不论用哪种说理方式,演讲者应该避免fallacies。
  比如,丘吉尔在针对希特勒侵占苏联的演讲中使用了the process of reasoning from principle。下面是他说理的压缩结构。大前提:“Anyone who fights against Hitler is our friend and anyone who allies with Hitler is our enemy.”。小前提:“Russia is fighting Hitler despite it being a communist country.”。结论:“Therefore, our policy is to support Russia.”。在演讲中,说理的步骤是清晰明了的,但说理的过程应该清楚。
  理性诉诸常用在价值和政策问题的演讲。在价值问题的演讲中,演讲者必须说明某些概念、思想或行为是对还是错,有道德的还是不道德的,有价值的还是没有价值的,重要的还是不重要的。在政策问题演讲中,演讲者必须指出基于价值判断的一个问题,并提出解决方案。
  
  3.情感诉诸
  
  顾名思义,情感诉诸就是触动听众的情感,用动人的语言和生动的例子打动听众。
  亚里士多德认为:尽管人本质是一个理性的动物,但却常常受情绪的影响接受事物。Stephen E. Lucas教授(2004)在《公共演讲的艺术》一书中写道,词语是演讲者的工具。语言的使用有三个方面:准确、清楚、生动。准确和清楚是告知演讲必不可少的,但生动是劝说演讲的有力工具。达到生动和激起听众的情绪有两个重要的方法——用形象的词语以及比喻性或有韵律的语言。
  形象的词语往往是具体词语。具体词可引发视觉、听觉、触觉、嗅觉和味觉。
  下面是来自国际关系学院陈冀佳的演讲。当他说到参加研究生考试辅导班的课时,他说:“Almost 15,000 students were sitting in a huge classroom, listening, taking notes or sleeping. The smell of books, dust and sweat, the buzz of handsets, the rustles of pens and the whispers of the listeners, intermingled with the lecturer’s over-amplified voice echoing in the stuffy, crowded and un-air-conditioned room. All this brought nothing but dizziness and suffocation.” 这些具体词引起人们的视觉和听觉,感觉和情绪能把听众带入演讲中。
  比喻性或有韵律的语言包括明喻、暗喻,即用“like”或“as”比较两个本质上不同但有相同之处的事物。下面是著名的Martin Luther King, Jr.的演讲I Have A Dream:This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end night of their captivity. 这些明喻表达了他希望黑人能得到真正的平等相待,并最终有一天能得到解放。
  下面是山东大学苗婧的演讲:“Thanks to the expanded enrollment, we can say goodbye to those days when going to college was like passing over a narrow bridge, with only a few, a very few, able to make it to the other side.”这个明喻生动地描述了大学录取的残酷竞争。
  暗喻,指的是用“like”或“as”比较两个本质上不同但有相同之处的事物。
  在第七届21世纪英语演讲比赛中,来自青岛海洋大学(现中国海洋大学)的李军在他的演讲中这样描述全球化:“A specter is haunting the world—the specter of globalization, with these abilities, we can transform the specter, the evil specter of globalization into a benevolent genie.”这个暗喻生动而又恰当地描述了全球化的到来,演讲者成功地说明全球化的势不可挡和普遍性,进而呼吁人们应拿出勇气和创造性,不应害怕全球化。


  韵律是由词的安排和选择而产生的声音模式。有几种方式能产生韵律:使用排比、重复、头韵和对照。
  排比,指的是一对或几个相关的单词、词组、句子组成结构和形式相同的成分。
  例如,在第九届21世纪杯英语演讲赛中,北京大学的王冕说道:“I see the dictatorship of market values in education; it is vulgarizing knowledge, it is narrowing people’s vision, it is depreciating the ideals of universities, it is leading to educational bankruptcy. ”。
  演讲者批评了在大学校园弥漫的实用主义浪潮,并担忧我们的教育会成为大学生快速致富的跳板。这一排比结构是以顺序排列的,达到了情感高峰。
  重复,即重复词组或句子的开头或结尾部分。
  1985年,美国前总统尼克松发表演讲,他设想了一个丰富多彩、多样化的世界:“I see a world where the honor of being called great is bestowed not on the world’s warriors but on the world’s peacemakers. And I see one world, but not a world drab in its uniformity but one enriched by its diversity. And I see a world in which there will continue to be conflict but where competition between great peoples will build rather than destroy—where it will be a force for peace and progress rather than a force for war.”
  通过重复“I see a world”这一词组,演讲者激发了听众的想象,想象到了总统所描述的新世界。
  另外一个典型的例子是著名的演说I Have A Dream: so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania. Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado. Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California. But not only that, let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia. Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee. Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi, from every mountainside.
  通过一系列的“let freedom ring”,演讲者表达了自己的希望,希望黑人在不久的将来能享受真正的平等,这能激励黑人为理想而奋斗,并增强他们对美好未来的信心。演讲中不断重复“I have a dream”,现在已经成为引用率较高的词组,激励不同民族的人们为自由、平等和幸福而奋斗。马丁·路德·金是一位受人尊敬的领袖,永远被人们铭记,他的话语情感强烈,仍触动着全世界数百万人的心弦。
  头韵,即重复相近或相邻的词语的首字母。
  2000年,希拉里·克林顿在纽约发表参议院竞选演说:“...and how fortunate we are indeed to live in the most diverse, dynamic and beautiful state in the entire union. You know, from the South Bronx to the Southern Tier, from Brooklyn to Buffalo, from Montauk to Massena, from the world’s tallest skyscrapers to breath-taking mountain ranges, I’ve met people whose faces and stories I will never forget.”
  通过重复首字母,一下子就能吸引听众。演讲中,希拉里·克林顿注重的是她所做的一切,让人们知道她已经竭尽全力承担自己的责任。纽约人民被她的毅力和勇气感动。
  肯尼迪在就职演说中的开头说道:“We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom—symbolizing an end as well as a beginning—signifying renewal as well as change...
  ...Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans...”
  重复能加强领导力的改变以及一个新时代的开始。
  对照,即相反观点的并列结构。
  如肯尼迪的就职演说:“...Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate...
  ...United, there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided, there is little we can do—for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder...
  ...And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country.
  My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.”

 这些句子简单却难忘,正是这种对照产生了效果。
  情感诉诸常常用在讨论价值观问题、政策问题以及纪念性的演讲中。如果没有被打动,那么很少人会改变他们的态度和行为。正如I. A. Richards(1936)在The Philosophy of Rhetoric中写道:“When persuasion is the end, passion also must be engaged.” 同样,纪念性演讲的目的是激起观众的自豪感、爱国精神以及对一种思想、一个传统或是一位英雄的崇敬和欣赏。因此演讲者必须唤起观众的情感。
  
  4.人品(道德)诉诸
  
  人品(道德)诉诸是第三种劝说的手段,是观众的看法,而非演讲者的自我意识。观众可能会问:演讲者是一个正直的人吗?演讲者是演讲主题的专家吗?演讲者会致力于达成目标吗?演讲者是否有能力领导国家?换句话说,他是否可信?
  亚里士多德认为人品诉诸是三种劝说方式中最有力的一种。他认为如果观众不尊重、不信任演讲者,那么演讲者劝说和感动观众意志的技巧将是无济于事的。
  一些理论家认为问几个问题可以分析演讲者的人品。笔者认为,下面两个问题是最重要的:演讲者如何给人留下真诚的印象?演讲者如何让听众认同自己的经历、价值观和态度?在笔者看来,一个成功的演讲者必须首先考虑这两个问题。因为思考上述两个问题可以保证演讲者的劝说成功。一句话,演讲者利用人品诉诸建立自己的可信度。
  引用名人或专家的话能够有效地建立演讲者的可信度。引用表明演讲者的论断和思想有专家、智者的支撑。如果没有支撑,那么论断常常是软弱无力的,没有效果的。因此,演讲者就很难传达信息,也很难劝说人们采取行动。
  在第九届21世纪英语演讲赛中,山东大学的苗婧引用了名言:“The celebrated historian, Toynbee, once declared,‘All progress comes from correspondent response to challenges’.” 这里,一位名人的话语证明了演讲者的观点,即大学生不应害怕挑战,而应抓住机遇,勇敢地面对激烈的竞争。
  在第九届21世纪英语演讲赛中,第二名得主复旦大学的魏香君强调做出选择的重要性,“College education, as British philosopher Alfred North Whitehead said,‘should be energizing as the poet of our dreams and the architect of our purposes.’”这一引用有效地支撑了她的观点,她认为目标、自律和远见都要靠选择的艺术。
  另一种建立信任的方式是作出个人承诺,并阐明演讲者的个人态度。
  在肯尼迪的就职演说中,他说:“I do not shrink from this responsibility, I welcome it.”
  这是赢得公众好感的最有说服力的方式。听众必定会赞赏一位为国家不遗余力、尽职尽责奉献的领导者。
  个人态度同样也能提升可信度。中国人民大学的刘芳开始演讲时,讲述了她自己的旅游经历,并阐述听众也能做同样的事情——现在行动,一步一步地做有益的事情。她还说:“I am strongly convinced that we are all aware of the importance, so it is high time now to turn our passion into action. Give our blue planet an opportunity to display its beauty freely, leave our next generations a brighter, greener and better world to stay in, and give ourselves a brighter future to head to. If not us, who? If not now, when?”听众的热烈掌声表明他们已经被演讲者的真诚的态度深深地打动了。
  布什总统在就职演说中重申了他的信念:“I will live and lead by these principles, to advance my convictions with civility, to pursue the public interest with courage, to speak for greater justice and compassion, to call for responsibility, and try to live it as well. I will bring the values of our history to the care of our times. After presenting his own belief and principle, the president required his citizens: I ask you to be citizens; citizens, not spectators; citizens, not subjects; responsible citizens building communities of service and a nation of character.”
  个人经历能证明演讲者有知识、有能力并值得信任。
  比如,第九届21世纪英语演讲赛的主题是“College Education in Today’s Competitive World: Challenges and Opportunities for Students”,中国人民大学的杜维回忆了自己的经历:“Later, I worked for a newspaper during summer. In doing my first report, it took me six hours to wrestle for better wording before I handed in the short story to the editor. But guess what? The editor shook his head in disbelief that a simple assignment like that should have taken me so long. On campus, we are encouraged to trace down every detail to make an essay truly perfect, whereas people in the real world only value timing and efficiency.”杜维强调大学教育和社会需求之间有很大的差距,她认为高等教育应注重培养学生接受挑战,适应快速变化的社会的需求的能力。演讲者自己也是一名学生,她阐述自己的经历,有效地表明了观点。
  在第三届21世纪英语演讲赛中,北京广播学院(现中国传媒大学)的何琳琳表达了自己对East and West: Can We Live in Two Cultures? 这一主题的看法。在整个演讲中,她叙述了她与美国的Robinson之间的友谊。演讲者回忆了她们之间在一起玩耍的时光以及偶尔的吵架。她不理解为什么她们之间有那么多的差异:“We were different in skin color. Robinson was black, but I had yellow skin. We were different in language, she spoke English while my native language is Chinese. We were different in eating habits. Robinson was clumsy with Chinese chopsticks but she taught me which hand holds a fork and which a knife. We were different in ways of thinking and behaving. After the class, Robinson rushed out of the classroom to play basketball with the boys. Well, I was too shy to speak to them.”观众对她们的故事很有兴趣,因此她的演讲也比较有说服力,而且是可信的。
  人品诉诸通常用在就职演说或告知演讲中,或者是谈论一个有争议的话题的演讲中,尤其是当演讲者并非是某一话题的专家。演讲者必须要通过讲述他的人品、性格、知识和能力来建立信任。运用人品诉诸的目的是建立演讲者的可信度,以加强其结论劝说力。
  
  5.结语
  
  理性诉诸可以强有力地支持论点;而情感诉诸关注的是听众的情绪,用意象词和韵律创造一种演讲者想要的反应;人品诉诸是用来建立演讲者的可信度,让听众认识到演讲者对某一话题的阐述是诚实的、开放的、富有远见的。这三种诉诸可以通过各种语言的手段达到,并且三者是相互补充的。一个成功的演讲能综合平衡地运用这三者,侧重于用哪一种诉诸取决于演讲的类型。如果运用得恰当,三诉诸可以有效地说服观众的理性,激起情感的反应,建立演讲者的可信度。
  
  参考文献
  Lucas, E. S. The Art of Public Speaking (Eighth Edition)[M]. McGraw Hill Companies Higher Education, 2004: 266, 273-281.
  Richards, I. A. The Philosophy of Rhetoric[M]. London: OUP, 1936.
  胡曙中. 英语修辞学[M]. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,2002:2-30.
  何晓勤. 演讲·劝说·诉诸·语篇[J]. 外语与外语教学,2004(11):7-9.
  《疯狂英语》编辑部. 演讲高手:疯狂英语精选特辑. 广州:广东省语言音像出版社,2003: 4-8,46-48. 134-136,
  《疯狂英语》编辑部. “21世纪爱立信杯”第七届全国英语演讲比赛. 南昌:江西文化音像出版社,2002:50,100.
  《疯狂英语》编辑部. “21世纪爱立信杯”第八届全国英语演讲比赛. 南昌:江西文化音像出版社,2003:100.
  《疯狂英语》编辑部. “21世纪外教社杯”第九届全国英语演讲比赛. 南昌:江西文化音像出版社,2004:84-86.
  中国日报社《21世纪报》编. 为成功而演讲. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,2005:6-12.
  http://www.uwc.ucf.edu

  评论这张
 
阅读(3936)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017