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英语演讲与辩论博客

外研社杯、21世纪杯、希望之星;演讲、视频

 
 
 

日志

 
 

GRE题库所有244道Issue题目的写作提纲,不经典不推【第二部分】  

2010-08-16 19:02:40|  分类: 托福、GRE 英语竞 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |
 

第二类 行为类

 

12. "People's attitudes are determined more by their immediate situation or surroundings than by any internal characteristic."

 

人们的态度更多的是由临时的情况或者环境所决定,而非人们自身的特点。

 

Social environment does plays a more important role in forming a person’s attitudes.

1.       Admittedly, people’s inborn temperament does play an important role in their attitudes.

2.       However, more often than not, people’s attitudes are largely influenced by their immediate situation or surroundings.

3.       It should also be noted that external factors not only influence people’s attitudes, but also shape their characters.

 

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18. "Only by being forced to defend an idea against the doubts and contrasting views of others does one really discover the value of that idea."

 

只有通过排除异议和对照其他的观点来捍卫一个理念,人们才能真正的发现该理念的价值所在。

 

Agree

1.       Different viewpoints interconnect with each other. Only after careful comparison can we reach the soul of the idea.

2.       Doubts and contrasting views can provide valuable use for reverences to our learning.

3.       History is replete with illustrative cases in which doubts and contrasting views contribute to the consummation of our knowledge.

 

------------------------------ 

 

21. "Reform is seldom brought about by people who are concerned with their own reputation and social standing. Those who are really in earnest about reforming a government, an educational system, or any other institution must be willing to be viewed with disdain by the rest of the world."

 

改革几乎从来都不是由那些关心自己声誉和社会地位的人发起的。那些真正热衷于政府改革、教育改革和其他机构改革的人们一定都是甘于被他人轻视的。

 

1.       Reform means the redistribution of benefits of various levels; therefore, resist and dissatisfaction is inevitable.

2.       Those who are not really in earnest about reform will retreat when facing difficulties in a reform.

 

------------------------------

 

 

 

25. "Anyone can make things bigger and more complex. What requires real effort and courage is to move in the opposite direction--in other words, to make things as simple as possible."

 

任何人都可以把事情简单复杂化,但是需要真正努力和勇气的恰恰相反,也就是说应该把事情变得尽可能的简单。

 

1.       The statement brings immediately to mind the ever-growing and increasingly complex digital world.

2.       Lending even more credence to the statement is the so-called “big government” phenomenon.

3.       Adding further credibility to the statement is the tendency of most people to complicate their personal lives.

 

复杂和简单

------------------------------

 

 

 

27. "No one can possibly achieve success in the world by conforming to conventional practices and conventional ways of thinking."

 

这个世界上没有人能够靠墨守陈规(行动或者思维上的)而获得成功。

 

1.       Traditional ways of thinking are treasures which will prevent us from wasting time and energy on trial things.

2.       However, we can create nothing if we are only confined to the conventional experience.

 

新手和老手之墨守成规和成功

------------------------------

 

31. "Money spent on research is almost always a good investment, even when the results of that research are controversial."

 

花在研究上的资金基本上都是不错的投资,即使研究的结果是有争议的。

Disagree with concession: 

1.       I concede that the speaker is on the correct philosophical side of this issue. After all, research is the exploration of the unknown for answers to our questions, and for lasting solutions to our endure problems.

2.       While we must invest in research irrespective of whether the results might be controversial, at the same time we should be circumspect about research whose objectives are too vague and whose potential benefits are too speculative.

3.       No amount of research can completely solve the enduring problems of war, poverty and violence, for the reason that they stem from the certain aspects of human nature—such as aggression and greed.

 

现实和理想

 

------------------------------

 

35. "No matter what the situation, it is more harmful to compromise one's beliefs than to adhere to them."

 

无论在什么样的情况下,折衷自己的信仰要比坚持有害。

 

1.       Having a belief is a good thing for an individual in a certain degree in the form of spiritual support. However, if the belief goes too extreme and even influences people’s life and family negatively, it is best to reconsider whether the belief worth so much persistence.

2.       Choosing to compromise does not mean that we have to give up our original belief. On the contrary, we are finding a better way to perfect our belief.

 

 

信仰

------------------------------

 

 

 

37. "In most societies, competition generally has more of a negative than a positive effect."

 

在大多数社会中,竞争一般是弊多利少。

Disagree 

1.       Competition benefits the general public by providing people with cheaper products and better service.

2.       Competition spurs innovation and invention, bringing new products and technology to multitudes.

3.       Admittedly, we should notice the side effect of competition, which are shrinking profit, dishonesty, etc.

利多弊少之竞争

------------------------------

 

62. "The widespread idea that people should make self-improvement a primary goal in their lives is problematic because it assumes that people are intrinsically deficient."

 

认为人们应该把自我进步当做是人生头等大事的流行观点是有问题的,因为这样的观点在假设人们是天生就有缺陷的。

 

Disagree

1.       On the one hand, admitting that we are deficient is the first step towards progress.

2.       On the other hand, smugness only leads to stagnancy.

3.       A serious problem with modern society is that too many people fail to realize the need for self-improvement.

 

独立题目

 

------------------------------

 

64. "Many people know how to attain success, but few know how to make the best use of it."

 

很多人懂得如何去获得成功,但是很少有人知道如何最好的去利用成功。

1.        A common characteristic of contemporary society is that people everywhere are concerned about how to attain success.

2.       Success is commonly understood as material gains.

3.       However, success does not ensure happiness.

4.       “Successful” people often ignore the interests and needs of other people, which renders their “success” meaningless.

 

Attain and sustain打江山容易,保江山难

------------------------------

  

68. "People make the mistake of treating experts with suspicion and mistrust, no matter how valuable their contributions might be."

 

人们经常错误的猜疑和不信任专家,无论专家们的贡献是多么的有价值。

 

Expert’s opinions should be evaluated objectively.

1.       Generally speaking, experts’ opinions are comparatively more trustworthy than ordinary people’s when it comes to solving problems that require special expertise.

2.       The reality of our society is that people tend to take for granted whatever experts say.

3.       It is possible that sometimes experts do make mistakes which ordinary people can correct.

怀疑权威

------------------------------

 

71. "Spending time alone makes one a better companion to others."

 

学会独自消磨时光会使你更好地成为别人的伙伴。

 

Agree

1.       Admittedly, habitually isolating oneself from others does not automatically make one a better companion.

2.       However, people who think and work independently will be able to bring new ideas and new perspectives to others.

3.       One’s loneliness makes one crave for and cherish the opportunity to stay with others.

人际关系之个人时间和公众时间

------------------------------

 

74. "The most effective way to communicate an idea or value to large groups of people is through the use of images, not language."

 

和一大群人交流想法或者价值观的最有效方式是图像而非语言。

 

The use of images is not always more effective than that of language.

1.       On the one hand, images are more vivid and easier for the largest audience to comprehend.

2.       On the other hand, images tend to cause ambiguities.

3.       The most effective way of communication is combing the use of images and that of language.

独立题目

------------------------------

 

75. "The people who make important contributions to society are generally not those who develop their own new ideas, but those who are most gifted at perceiving and coordinating the talents and skills of others."

 

对社会做出重要贡献的人往往不是那些发展自己新想法的人,而是那些最善于察觉和调控他人天赋和技术的人。

 

Generally speaking, the progress of society depends more on the contributions of leaders rather than the ordinary masses.

1.       It should be admitted that individual thinkers and scientist make important contributions to society.

2.       However, history is filled with examples that indicate the dramatic contributions to society made by the people who are capable of leading others toward a common goal.

3.       Today, progress in every field is impossible without the joined efforts of individuals—through the coordination of leaders.

 

 

------------------------------

81. "Patriotic reverence for the history of a nation often does more to impede than to encourage progress."

 

出于爱国对于一个国家的尊崇往往不是促进进步而是阻碍进步。

 Agree

1.       It should be admitted that patriotic reverence for the history of a nation is a precondition of national cohesion.

2.       However, irrational reverence for national history would result in social conservatism that rejects the introduction of any social reforms.

3.       Blind reverence for national history would also cause fanatic nationalism, making impossible the communication between nations and cultures.

沙文主义

------------------------------

 

84. "In any field of endeavor, it is impossible to make a significant contribution without first being strongly influenced by past achievements within that field."

 

在任何物质领域中,如果不首先接受该领域中过去成就的影响就不可能会有意义重大的成功。

               

Progress in any field is based on past achievements within that field.

1.       In social sciences, the past achievements of a field are the rich sources of inspirations for formulating new theories in that field.

2.       In natural sciences, scientists use the existing methods and equipments—the achievements of the past—to make new discoveries or inventions.

3.       Even in creative fields such as arts and literature, mastering the achievements of the past is a precondition of creating new works.

现在和过去

------------------------------

  

86. "Young people should be encouraged to pursue long-term, realistic goals rather than seek immediate fame and recognition."

 

年轻人应该被鼓励去寻求长期的现实目标而不是追求眼前的名声。

 

1.       Seeking immediate fame and recognition would turn out to be counterproductive.

2.       Unfortunately, today’s education and society seem to attach more importance to immediate success.

3.       In the long run, pursuing long-term goals not only benefit young people themselves but also the whole society.

现实和将来

------------------------------

 

87. "In any field of inquiry, the beginner is more likely than the expert to make important discoveries."

 

在所有的研究领域中,新手要比专家更有可能获得重要的发现。

  Agree

1.       Beginners have intense curiosity about the unknown and great courage to try new things, while experienced experts tend to be more conservative.

2.       Furthermore, beginners are highly motivated and enthusiastic people who are eager to establish their career and fame.

新手和老手

------------------------------

 

91. "Most people think that their deeply held values are the result of rational choice, but reason often has little to do with the way people form values."

 

大多数人认为他们深信不疑的价值观是理性选择的结果,但是理智往往对于人们形成价值观几乎根本不起作用。

 

Individual’s deeply held values are usually not the result of rational choice, but the result of socialization.

1.       It is the culture in which we live that provides us with the values.

2.       Most people simply adopt the values instilled by their culture.

3.       It is necessary to question the established values within a certain society.

理性和感性之价值观

------------------------------

 

95. "People work more productively in teams than individually. Teamwork requires cooperation, which motivates people much more than individual competition does."

 

人们在团队中工作比独立工作要更加有效率。团队协作需要的合作能够比个人间的竞争更加激励人们。

 

1.       In some jobs productivity clearly depends on the ability of coworkers to cooperate as members of a team.

2.       In other types of jobs individual competition, tenacity and ambition are key to productivity.

3.       On balance, however, my view is that cooperation is more crucial for an organization’s long-term productivity than individual competition.

竞争和合作之效率

------------------------------

   

99. "In any realm of life--whether academic, social, business, or political—the only way to succeed is to take a practical, rather than an idealistic, point of view. Pragmatic behavior guarantees survival, whereas idealistic views tend to be superceded by simpler, more immediate options."

 

在任何生活领域中----无论是学术、社会、商业还是政治----获得成功的唯一道路就是采取现实的而不是理想化的观点。实用的行为确保了生存,反之理想化的观点正在趋于被更简化的和更直接的选择所取代。

 

Idealism is just as crucial—if not more so—for long-term success in any endeavor, whether it be in academics, business, or political and social reform.

1.       When it comes to academics, although the idealist-student might sacrifice a high overall grade average, the depth of knowledge, academic discipline, and sense of purpose the students gains will serve that student well later in life.

2.       Considering the business world, without a dream or vision—that is, without strong idealist leadership—a firm can easily be cast about in the sea of commerce without clear direction, threatening not only the firm’s bottom line but also its very survival.

3.       Finally, when it comes to the political arena, it is idealists—not pragmatists—who sway the masses, incite revolutions, and make political ideology reality.

理想和现实

------------------------------

   

118. "In any field of endeavor-the sciences, the humanities, the social sciences, industry, etc.-it is not the attainment of a goal that matters, but rather the ideas and discoveries that are encountered on the way to the goal."

 

在所有的物质领域中--科学、人文科学、社会科学、工业等等--能否达到目的并不重要,而在争取达到目的的过程中获得的想法和发现才更重要。

 

In some cases, the statement makes sense; in other cases, it does not.

1.       In academic studies, the goal of a project is but a general direction; what matters are the unexpected concrete findings on the way to the goal.

2.       However, in industry and business, what is crucial is the attainment of a specific goal rather than the process toward that goal.

3.       In politics, failing to achieve a promised goal might mean a calamity for a politician.

过程和结果

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121. "At various times in the geological past, many species have become extinct as a result of natural, rather than human, processes. Thus, there is no justification for society to make extraordinary efforts, especially at a great cost in money and jobs, to save endangered species."

 

在过去不同的地质时期,许多的物种因为自然作用而非人类行为而灭绝。因此,人类社会为了挽救濒危物种而付出的巨大努力,尤其是以大量的资金和工作机会为代价,这样做是毫无道理的。

 

 

The statement raises a variety of issues about morality, conscience, self-preservation, and economics. On balance, however, I fundamentally agree with the notion that humans need not make “extraordinary” efforts—at the expense of money and jobs—to ensure the preservation of any endangered species.

 

1.       There are three fundamental arguments for imposing on ourselves at least some responsibility to preserve endangered species, which are culpability, capability, and self-preservation.

2.       On the other hand are two compelling arguments against placing a duty on humans to protect endangered species. The first is essentially the Darwinian argument that extinction results from the inexorable process of so-called “natural selection” in which stronger species survive while weaker ones do not.

3.       Secondly, many animal extinctions are due to natural forces which are far beyond our ability. The more money and jobs it would cost to save a certain species, the lower priority we should place on doing so.

人类和自然--当务之急(资金、工作)和长远考虑(物种)

 

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127. "Facts are stubborn things. They cannot be altered by our wishes, our inclinations, or the dictates of our passions."

 

事实都是固执的。它不可能随着我们的愿望、喜好或者情绪而改变。

 

When it comes to certain aspect of our personal lives, and to historical events and scientific truths, no measure of desire or even passion can change external reality.

 

1.       On an individual level, we all engage in futile attempts to alter facts—by pretending that certain things are not the way they are because they are inconsistent with our wishes or personal interests.

2.       Nor can we alter facts by virtue of our inclinations or passions when it comes to history. Historical event is not rendered any less factual by either our ignorance or characterization of it.

3.       Similarly, when it comes to science, our wishes and desires ultimately yield to the stubbornness of facts—by which I mean empirical scientific evidence and the laws and principles of the physical world.

客观和主观

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136. "The absence of choice is a circumstance that is very, very rare."

 

没有选择的情况少之又少。

 

Agree

1.       Our collective life experience is that we make choices and decisions every day—on a continual basis. Common sense dictates that humans have free will, and therefore the true absence of choice is very rare.

2.       People often claim that life’s circumstances leave them with “no choice”. The fundamental problem with these sorts of claim is that the claimants are only considering those choice that are not viable or attractive.

3.       Besides, the contention that we are almost invariably free to choose is far more appealing from a socio-political standpoint than the opposite claim.

独立题目

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137. "What we call progress is a matter of exchanging one problem for another."

 

我们所称之为进步的过程就是从一个问题变化到另一个问题。

 

Agree

1.       Industrialization, a great historical progress which has dramatically saved the limited labor force, has brought about environmental problems.

2.       Urbanization, another breakthrough in human history, has witnessed a rise in crime rates and disintegration of communities.

3.       However, there is no need to be pessimistic about progress.

 

独立

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139. "Every new generation needs to redefine 'right' and 'wrong' in its own terms and according to the conditions of its own time."

 

每一代人都要根据自己时代的情况和自己的说法来重新定义对与错。

 

1.       We should define some new items for better understanding of the development of techniques and enhancing the quality of our life.

2.       However, rashness of redefining the terms may cause detrimental effects to our society. Such as the sex liberty in the U.S., which led to dramatic rise in juvenile delinquency.

3.       Meanwhile, we should give no doubt to axioms.

时间

------------------------------

 

 141. "Most people recognize the benefits of individuality, but the fact is that personal economic success requires conformity."

 

虽然大多数人都承认个人的利益,但是事实上个人的经济成功需要的是一致。

 

Agree with concession

1.       Regarding the sort of economic success that results from investing one’s wealth, the principles of investing dictate that those who seek risky investments in areas that are out of favor with the majority of investors ultimately reap higher returns than those who follow the crowd.

2.       Turning to the sort of economic success that one achieves by way of one’s work, neither conformists nor non-conformists necessarily achieve greater success than the other group.

3.       However, in traditional service industries—such as finance, accounting, insurance, legal services, and health care—personal economic success comes not to non-conformist but rather to those who can work most effectively within the constraints of established practices, policies and regulations.

个人和整体

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145. "A crucial test of character is whether one is able to adapt to changing social conventions without sacrificing one's principles."

 

对于个性的最大考验在于一个人是否能够适应不断变化的社会规范而不牺牲自己的原则。

 

How to confront changing social conventions is a crucial challenge to one’s character.

1.       Those who can adapt to the changing social conventions such as economic climate without sacrificing their principles are more likely to succeed. 

2.       However, an even more praiseworthy character is one who is willing to change his principles to adapt to the changing situations when those principles are out of date.

个体和整体

 

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146. "People who are the most deeply committed to an idea or policy are the most critical of it."

 

对于一种想法或者政策最忠实的人往往是那些对其最严厉的人。

 

Critical: Inclined to judge severely and find fault.

 爱挑剔的倾向于进行严厉批判和找岔的

While I find this claim paradoxical on its face, the paradox is explainable, and the explanation is well supported empirically. Nevertheless, the claim is an unfair generalization in that it fails to account for other empirical evidence serving to discredit it.

A.       Are commitment and criticism mutually exclusive?  One possible explanation is that individuals most firmly committed to an idea or policy are often the same people who are most knowledgeable on the subject, and therefore are in the best position to understand and appreciate the problems with the idea or policy.

B.       Lending credence to this explanation for the paradoxical nature of the speaker’s claim are the many historical cases of uneasy marriage between commitment to and criticism of the same idea or policy.

C.       In the face of historical examples supporting the speaker’s claim are innumerable influential individuals who were zealously committed to certain ideas and policies but who were not critical of them, at least not outwardly.

 

 

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148. "Many people admire idealism, but it usually leads to disappointment or trouble."

 

很多人向往理想主义,但是它实际上总是带来失望或者麻烦。

 

Idealism does more harm than good to society as well as individuals.

1.       An idealist is one who, on noticing that a rose smells better a cabbage, concludes that it will also make better soup.

2.       Political idealism such as communism brought catastrophes to former socialist countries.

3.       Individually, idealism, if it were not balanced by pragmatism, would lead to personal failure.

4.       Guided by practical plans, however, idealism can lead to hope and enthusiasm.

理想和现实

 

idealism: The act or practice of envisioning things in an ideal form.

 理想主义用理想的观点看待事物的行为或实践行为

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156. "Choice is an illusion. In reality, our lives are controlled by the society in which we live."

 

选择只是一种假象。实际上,我们的生活是被我们生活其中的社会所控制的。

 

1.       Choice is a highly practical thing that everyone is confronted with all the time.

2.       However, not every one can tackle choice properly with much easiness.

3.       Society is also influenced and controlled by our way of living.

类似于现有环境后有意识

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157. "There is no such thing as purely objective observation. All observation is subjective; it is always guided by the observer's expectations or desires."

 

纯粹客观的观察是不存在的。所有的观察都是主观的;观察总是被观察者的预期或者喜好所左右的。

 

A.       It would be tempting to afford the speaker’s claim greater merit than it deserves. After all, our everyday experience as humans informs us that we often disagree about what we observe around us.

B.       However, these sorts of subjective “observations” are actually subjective “interpretations” of what we observe.

主观和客观之观察

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162. "One often hears about the need for individuals to take responsibility for their own lives. However, the conditions in which people find themselves have been largely established long before people become aware of them. Thus, the concept of personal responsibility is much more complicated and unrealistic than is often assumed."

 

人们经常听说个人需要为他们自己的生活负责任。然而,人们发现自己所处环境的存在要远远早于人们对其的认识。因此,个人责任的概念要比通常人们想象的要复杂和不切实际。

 

 

The statement can help us understand better the concept of personal responsibility.

1.       We all live in conditions that have been largely established by others.

2.       The environment in which we act, often uncontrollable, exerts unforeseeable influence on our behavior.

3.       Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the objective conditions when we require a person to assume responsibility.

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163. "Most people live, whether physically or morally, in a very restricted circle. They make use of a very limited portion of the resources available to them until they face a great problem or crisis."

 

大多数人在物质上和精神上都生活在一个非常有限的圈子里面。除非要面对严重的问题或者危机,否则他们仅仅会利用有效资源的极有限的一小部分。

Agree 

1.       Many people are confined by the physical deficiencies or moral regulations in their way of living. They have to obey them to procure their reputation, fame, success, and so on.

2.       However, when confronted with crisis and the like, people will use resources of others or of the community or even the whole society.

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165. "In any given field, the leading voices come from people who are motivated not by conviction but by the desire to present opinions and ideas that differ from those held by the majority."

 

在任何领域当中,领导作用总是来自于这些人,他们并不为传统的观念所动,而是极力渴望表达那些和主流思想不同的观点和想法。

 

1.              When it comes to political power, I would admit that a deep-seated psychological need to be noticed or to be different sometimes lies at the heart of a person’s drive to political power and fame.

2.              Nevertheless, for every leading political voice driven to new ideas by a desire to be noticed or to be different, on can cite many other political leaders clearly driven instead by the courage of their convictions.

3.              Turning to the arts, creative urges are born not of ego but rather of some intensely personal commitment to an aesthetic ideal.

4.              As for the physical sciences, innovation and progress can only result from challenging conventional theories—that is, the status quo.

  

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168. "Critical judgment of work in any given field has little value unless it comes from someone who is an expert in that field."

 

批判性的判断在任何领域当中都是没什么用处的,除非它是来自于该领域中的专家。

1.        With respect to the social sciences, the social world presents a seamless web of not only anthropogenic but also physical forces, which interact in ways that can be understood only in the context of a variety of disciplines.

2.       In contrast, the work of researchers in the purely physical sciences can be judged only by their peers.

统一和分歧之专家

 

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175. "It is always an individual who is the impetus for innovation; the details may be worked out by a team, but true innovation results from the enterprise and unique perception of an individual."

 

革新的动力往往来自于个人;革新的细节可能来自于团队,但是实质的革新都是个人努力和独特思维的结果。

 

1.       With respect to business innovation, I agree that it is the vision and commitment of key individuals—such as a firm’s founder or chief executive—from which business burgeon and innovative products, services, and marketing and management strategies emerge.

2.       Nevertheless, teamwork and individual enterprise are not necessarily inconsistent, as the speaker would have us believe.

 

------------------------------

 

182. "It is dangerous to trust only intelligence."

 

只相信聪明才智是危险的。

 

Intelligence is sufficient in some cases but not in any case.

1.       In scientific studies regarding the physical world, we should depend only on intelligence for discovering and testing truths.

2.       However, in the realm of human affairs, we have to use both our intelligence and our hearts to solve problems.

 

------------------------------

 

184. "It is a grave mistake to theorize before one has data."

 

在掌握足够资料之前建立理论会导致严重的错误。

 

1.       A theory conjured up without the benefit of data amounts to little more than the theorist’s hopes and desires—what he or she wants to be true and not be true.

2.       By theorizing before collecting data the theorist also runs that risk of interpreting that data in a manner which makes it appear to lend more credence to the theory than it actually does.

------------------------------

 

186. "Practicality is now our great idol, which all powers and talents must serve. Anything that is not obviously practical has little value in today's world."

 

实用主义是我们现在主要的追求,一切的力量和才智都必须为其服务。任何并非显著实用的东西在当今世界几乎是没有价值的。

 

1.       Practicality seems clearly to be the litmus test for education today.

2.       Practicality also dictates what sort of art is produced today.

3.       Practicality is also the overriding concern in contemporary politics.

4.       On the other hand, the claim amounts to an overstatement when it comes to today’s scientific endeavors.

当务之急和长远大计的关系

------------------------------

 

187. "It is easy to welcome innovation and accept new ideas. What most people find difficult, however, is accepting the way these new ideas are put into practice."

 

拥护革新和接受新想法很简单。但是在大多数人们看来,最困难的是接受把这些新想法付诸实现的方式。

 

1.       In areas of politics and law, new ideas are not often easily accepted.

2.       Yet once society grows to accept these new ideas, it seems that it has an easier time accepting how they are put into practice.

3.       In contrast, consider innovations in the natural sciences. It seems that we universally embrace any new technology in the name of progress. Of course there are always informed dissenters with legitimate concerns.

4.       Yet the reasons why these dissenters oppose certain innovations have to do with their potential applications and uses, not with the innovations themselves.

------------------------------

 

188. "Success, whether academic or professional, involves an ability to survive in a new environment and, eventually, to change it."

 

成功,无论是学术上的还是职业上的,都涉及了适应新环境并最终改变新环境的能力。

 

1.       Regarding academic success, the speaker overstates the significance of environment.

2.       Turning next to professional success, and considering the two traditional professions of law and medicine, the speaker’s claim unfairly overrates the ability to change one’s professional environment as a key ingredient of professional success.

3.       In contrast, when it comes to certain other professions, such as business and scientific research, the speaker’s claim is far more compelling.

------------------------------

 

192. "Success in any realm of life comes more often from taking chances or risks than from careful and cautious planning."

在生活的所有领域中,成功往往更多的来自于把握机会或者冒险而不是通过仔细谨慎的计划。

Careful and cautious planning is just as important as taking chances or risks.

1.       Whatever goal we intend to accomplish, the first thing to do is planning.

2.       Chance favors only the prepared minds.

3.       Taking risks without any planning is nothing but rashness.

冒险和计划

------------------------------

 

194. "The best preparation for life or a career is not learning to be competitive, but learning to be cooperative."

对于生活或者事业最好的准备不是学会竞争而是学会合作。

 

Agree

1.       Cooperation benefits every member of the team.

2.       Every field of life requires people who are ready to cooperate with others.

3.       Only through cooperation can we accomplish great tasks.

4.       What is most needed today might be learning to compete in the spirit of cooperation.

竞争和合作

------------------------------

 

199. "Truly innovative ideas do not arise from groups of people, but from individuals. When groups try to be creative, the members force each other to compromise and, as a result, creative ideas tend to be weakened and made more conventional. Most original ideas arise from individuals working alone."

真正有创意的想法并非来自于群体而是来自于个人。当群体试图创新的时候,它的成员之间会被迫相互妥协,结果就是新想法趋于弱化而更接近于传统。大部分新想法都是来自于独立工作的个人。

 

少数和多数之新创意

Original ideas may arise from individuals working alone as well as from groups of people working together.

1.       It is true that individual thinkers or scientists working alone formulated many original ideas in history.

2.       However, one should see that those great individuals actually benefited a lot from the work either of his contemporaries or of the people before their time.

3.       While members of a group might force each other to compromise, it is also true that they may inspire and enlighten each other.

 

------------------------------

  

206. "People are too quick to take action; instead they should stop to think of the possible consequences of what they might do."

人们现在太急于采取行动,实际上人们应该先停下来考虑一下他们这么做可能导致的结果。

 

It is always wise to think twice before you act.

1.       More haste, less speed.

2.       It might not be too difficult to persuade people to consider the possible impacts of their actions on themselves.

3.       People should also think of the impacts of their actions on other people.

现在和将来之思维和行动

------------------------------

 

208. "The way people look, dress, and act reveals their attitudes and interests. You can tell much about a society's ideas and values by observing the appearance and behavior of its people."

 

人们的眼神、穿着和动作都揭示了他们的态度和兴趣。你可以透过观察一个社会中人们的外貌和举止来认识该社会的理念和价值观。

 

1.       Turning first to the way people look and dress, certain aspects of the outward appearance of a culture’s people do inform us of their ideas, attitudes and values.

2.       The habits, rituals and lifestyles of a culture often do provide accurate signals about its values.

3.       Finally, the statement overlooks a crucial distinction between free societies and oppressed ones.

以小见大

------------------------------

 

209. "Progress is best made through discussion among people who have contrasting points of view."

 

进步最好是在人们各抒己见的讨论中达成的。

In all realms of human endeavor, including the behavior and natural sciences as well as government and law, debate and disagreement form the foundation for progress.

 

1.       Regarding the physical sciences, our scientific method is essentially a call for progress through opposition.

2.       The nature-nurture debate will continue to serve as a catalyst for progress across the entire social spectrum.

3.       History informs us of the chilling effect suppression of free discourse and debate can have on progress.

统一和分歧之进步

------------------------------

 

210. "Most people choose a career on the basis of such pragmatic considerations as the needs of the economy, the relative ease of finding a job, and the salary they can expect to make. Hardly anyone is free to choose a career based on his or her natural talents or interest in a particular kind of work."

 

大多数人选择职业是基于很实际的考虑:经济需求、找工作简单、高薪水。很难得有人能从自己的潜质和兴趣出发去自由的寻找一份特定的工作。

Although practical considerations often play a significant role in occupational trends, ultimately the driving forces behind people’s career decisions are individual interest and ability.

 

1.       At first glance the balance of empirical evidence would seem to lend considerable credence to the speaker’s claim

2.       However, upon further reflection it becomes clear that the relationship between career seekers and the supply of careers is an interdependent one, and therefore it is unfair to generalize about which one drives the other.

3.       Another compelling argument against the speaker’s claim has to do with the myriad of ways in which people earn their living.

 

------------------------------

 211. "Any decision-whether made by government, by a corporation, or by an individual person-must take into account future conditions more than present conditions."

任何一个决定,无论它来自政府、公司还是个人,都必须更多地考虑将来的情况而不是现在的情况。

 

We should take into account both future and present conditions when we make a decision.

1.       Any decision that does not take into account future conditions will become obsolete as time goes by.

2.       We should know that fact that nobody can foretell exactly what will happen in the future.

3.       Meanwhile, if we ignore the present conditions, our decision will not work at all.

当务之急和百年大计之决定

------------------------------

 

212. "If a goal is worthy, then any means taken to attain it is justifiable."

 

 

只要值得,不择手段达到目的是合理的。

 

Although the idealist way is to achieve the noblest goal through the noblest means, in reality we sometimes have to resort to low means in order to attain high goals.

1.       Theoretically, the means taken should be consistent with the ends in view.

2.       However, in order to restore peace and social order, individuals states or the international community has repeatedly used force in history.

3.       We should be alert to the possibility that individuals, organizations or government tend to plead a worthy goal in excuse of their contemptible means and private interests.

 

------------------------------

 

216. "Most important discoveries or creations are accidental: it is usually while seeking the answer to one question that we come across the answer to another."

 

最重要的发现或是创造都是偶然的:在我们为一个问题寻求答案的时候,通常通过这个答案获得另外的收获。

 

1.       Turning first to discoveries, I agree that discovery often occurs when we unexpectedly happen upon something in our quest for something else—such as an answer to unrelated question or a solution to an unrelated problem.

2.       Many important discoveries are anticipated and sought out purposefully.

3.       In marked contrast to discoveries, creations are by nature products of their creator’s purposeful designs.

 

------------------------------

 

225. "People often look for similarities, even between very different things, and even when it is unhelpful or harmful to do so. Instead, a thing should be considered on its own terms; we should avoid the tendency to compare it to something else."

 

 

人们总是在寻找相同点,即使是在非常不同的事物间也不例外,甚至有时候这样做是无用乃至有害的。实际上,我们应该具体问题具体分析;我们应该尽量避免比较的倾向。

 

1.       I agree with the speaker insofar as insisting on find similarities between things can often result in unfair, and sometimes harmful, comparison.

2.       We should be especially careful when looking for similarities between people.

3.       The speaker goes too far—by overlooking a fundamental, even philosophical, reason why we should always look for similarities between things. 

分歧和统一

------------------------------

 

226. "People are mistaken when they assume that the problems they confront are more complex and challenging than the problems faced by their predecessors. This illusion is eventually dispelled with increased knowledge and experience."

 

人们总是错误地认为自己面临的问题要比前人来得更复杂和更具有挑战性。不断增加的知识和经验最终消除这种假象。

 

现在和过去

 

1.       The speaker overlooks certain societal problems unique to today’s world, which are complex and challenging in ways unlike any problems that earlier societies ever faced.

2.       However, humans face certain universal and timeless problems, which are neither more nor less complex and challenging for any generation than for preceding ones.

 

------------------------------

231. " 'Moderation in all things' is ill-considered advice. Rather, one should say, 'Moderation in most things,' since many areas of human concern require or at least profit from intense focus."

 

“做任何事都要适度”这句话是欠考虑的。更确切的说,我们应该“对大多数事情都要适度”,因为人类在很多领域中遇到的问题都需要全力以赴(解决),或者至少会从中获益。

 

1.       The virtues of moderation are undeniable. Moderation in all things affords us the time and energy to sample more of what life and world have to offer. In contrast, lack of moderation leads to a life out of balance.

2.       Having acknowledged the wisdom of the old adage, I nevertheless agree that under some circumstances, and for some people, abandoning moderation might be well justified.

度的问题

------------------------------

 

234. "Most people prefer restrictions and regulations to absolute freedom of choice, although they would probably deny such a preference."

 

大多数人更喜欢约束和规则,而不是绝对自由的选择权,尽管他们可能会否认这样的倾向。

 

1.       History informs us that attempts to quell basic individuals freedoms—of expression, of opinion and belief, and to come and go as we please—invariably fail; however, reasonable constraints on freedom are needed to protect freedom—and to prevent a society from devolving into a state of anarchy where life is short and brutish.

2.       Our preference for constraining our own freedom of choice is evident on societal level as well as on individual level.

 

自由和约束

------------------------------

 

235. "Most people are taught that loyalty is a virtue. But loyalty--whether to one's friends, to one's school or place of employment, or to any institution--is all too often a destructive rather than a positive force."

 

大多数人被告知忠诚是一种美德。但是无论是对朋友、对学校、对单位还是对任何机构,忠诚时常都是弊大于利的。

 

1.       First consider the ways in which loyalty, if exercised in proper measure and direction, can be a positive force.

2.       On the other hand, if misguided or overextended loyalty can amount to divisive and destructive force.

统一和分歧之忠诚

all too often时常

------------------------------

 

236. "Encouraging young people to believe that they can accomplish great things if they try hard enough is both misleading and potentially harmful."

鼓励年轻人们相信只要他们努力就能够完成伟大的事情,这样做不仅仅是在误导而且存在着潜在的危害性。

 

Encouraging young people to believe that they can accomplish great things does more good than harm to them.

1.       No one knows much he or she can achieve before trying.

2.       Encouraging young people to believe that they can accomplish great things gives them confidence, which helps to bring out their potential.

3.       Some of them may finally get frustrated because not every one can accomplish great things; however, every one will make progress through doing their best.

 

理想和现实之努力篇

------------------------------

 

 

 

238. "Conformity almost always leads to a deadening of individual creativity and energy."

 

一致几乎总是阻隔个人的创造力和活力。

 

1.       Whether conformity stifles individual energy depends on the individual person involved.

2.       Conformists find enhanced energy in certain corner of the business world as well, particularly in traditional service industries such as finance, accounting, insurance, legal services, and health care.

3.       In sharp contrast, other people are nonconformists by nature. For these people a highly structured, bureaucratic environment only serves to quell motivation and energy.

4.       As for whether conformity stifles individual creativity, one need only look around at the individuals whom we consider highly creative to conclude that this is indeed the case.

统一和分歧

------------------------------

 

239. "Much of the information that people assume is 'factual' actually turns out to be inaccurate. Thus, any piece of information referred to as a 'fact' should be mistrusted since it may well be proven false in the future."

 

大多数人们认为是事实的信息结果实际上都是不准确的。因此,任何据称是事实的信息都应该被质疑,因为它在将来很可能会被证明为是错误的。

 

1.       On the one hand, we should not passively accept whatever is passed off as fact; otherwise, human knowledge would never advance.

2.       On the other hand, in certain cases undue skepticism can be counterproductive and even harmful.

 

权威问题

------------------------------

 

240. "Although it is easy to respond positively to the work of another person or group, it is far more worthwhile to give negative feedback."

尽管对其他的个人或者群体的成就作积极的反应很容易,但是给与负面的回应往往更有价值。

 

Encouragement proves more valuable than negative feedback.

1.       People may not be as good as we tell them they are, but they will try harder thereafter.

2.       Encouragement can make people happy and confident.

3.       Admittedly, honest negative feedback may help people see their weakness.

 

良药苦口利于病。

------------------------------

 

 

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